Scriptural Comparison

BASIC STUDY MANUAL SCIENTOLOGY SCRIPTURES  
Chapter one: Why study? "Study and Intention," lecture of 18 August 1966 ("SAI")

"Studying: Introduction," lecture given on 18 June 1964 ("SI")

 
Why Study?    
In his dictionary of 1828, Noah Webster said that "to study" means "to apply the mind to; to read and examine for the purpose of learning and understanding."    
Why does one study? For what purpose are you studying? SAI
Until you clarify that, you cannot make an intelligent activity of it. Now, until you clarify that, you in actual fact cannot make an intelligent activity of it. SAI
Some students go through a course and wind up at the other end of it unable to do anything with it. In actual fact, this is because they studied the course just so they could pass the examination; they did not study the course in order to apply the data in it. Why you have a fellow go through a course and wind up at the other end of the course unable to audit, it’s because he in actual fact studied for the examination. He did not study to apply it to people. SAI
This is why such people fail in practice after they graduate. This is why you get failures in practice after certification, and is the whole reason. SAI
Instead of thinking, "Is this going to be on the exam?" one would do much better to ask himself, "How can I apply this material?" or "How can I really use this?" The next time you’re studying something, why, take a look at it and you’ll find yourself up — "And the Examiner is going to ask this," and so forth, … ask yourself this question instead … How can I apply this, if I knew this datum, out in life?" and so forth, "Of what use would it be to me?" SAI
With that in mind, a person would get much more out of what he studied, and would be able to put what he studied to actual use.    
The First Obstacle to Learning    
The first obstacle to learning is the idea that one "knows it all already."    
A student who thinks he knows all there is to know about a subject will not be able to learn anything in it.    
Such a student doesn’t even know what he doesn’t know.    
If you asked him if he was willing to learn about it, he would try to avoid your question. He isn’t willing to learn about it because he has the false idea that he knows all about it already.    
As an example, I once took a correspondence course in photography, thinking that I might learn a few more tricks in the subject. I had been a rather successful photographer, having sold many of my photographs to magazines, and some of my work had even been published in geography books. However, once I started the course, I only got as far as the third lesson when I found myself bogging on it and putting it aside. And at one time or another, why, I’ve sold pictures and so
on. It’s just one of these hobbyist things that you fool with. I’d probably
classify as an advanced amateur; one time I classified as a pro, when I was
in college. Used to make a lot of money, National Geographic and so forth. I
think there’s some geography books around that still carry pictures of mine
in them. …

So I took up this correspondence course in photography – the New York Institute of Photography, one of the best – and rolled up my sleeves, and found out I’d never gotten deeper than about the third lesson.

SI
Later, I took another look at this correspondence course I was taking and realized that this same course contained the real basics and fundamentals of the subject of photography that I didn’t even know existed in it. I saw that I didn’t know even the first fundamental of why photographs were taken in the first place!    
It dawned on me that I had been very arrogant and that I really didn’t know all there was to know on the subject of photography, and that there was something there to learn. … it dawned on me … that I had been very arrogant and that I really didn’t know all there was to know … on the subject of photography; … there was something there to learn. SI
Once I could see this, I buckled down and started to study the course for real. I then finished the next eight lessons in two weeks of part-time study and gained a workable understanding of the subject for the first time. All the knowledge and understanding I had learned from that course would have been denied me if I had not overcome the first obstacle to learning. … I buckled down and started to study.

Now, the speed of advance is very interesting: three books in three and a half years; eight books in two weeks.

SI
On the subject of learning itself, the first datum to learn and the first obstacle to overcome is: "Why are you studying it if you know all about it to begin with?" But on the subject of learning itself, the first datum to teach is this little — and the first barrier to crack is this datum about "Why are you studying it if you know all about it to begin with?" SI
If a student can decide that he does not already know everything about a subject and can say to himself, "Here is something to study, let’s study it," he can overcome this obstacle and be able to learn it.    
This is a very, very important datum for any student to learn. If he knows this and applies it, the gateway to knowledge is wide open to him.    
Chapter Two: The Barriers to study "BARRIERS TO STUDY," HCO Bulletin of 25 June 1971R ("BTS")

Technical Dictionary of Dianetics
and Scientology ("TD)

 
The First Barrier: Absence of Mass    
The mass of a subject refers to the parts of that subject which are composed of matter and energy and which exist in the material universe. For example, if one were studying how to operate tractors, the mass would be an actual tractor, as opposed to the theory of tractors or data on the development of tractors, etc.    
Trying to educate someone without the mass that he is going to be involved with can make it very difficult for him. Education in the absence of the mass in which the technology will be involved is very hard on the student. BTS
Imagine trying to learn how to run a tractor with no tractor to look at!    
Such an absence of mass can actually make a student feel squashed. It actually makes him feel squashed. BTS
It can make him feel bent, Makes him feel bent, BTS
sort of spinny, sort of spinny, BTS
sort of dead, sort of dead, BTS
bored, bored, BTS
and exasperated. exasperated. BTS
If he is studying the doingness of something in which the mass is absent this will be the result. If he is studying the doingness of something in which the mass is absent this will be the result. BTS
If one is studying about tractors, the printed page and spoken word are no substitute for having an actual tractor there. … the printed page and the spoken word are not a substitute for a tractor if he’s studying about tractors. BTS
Photographs or motion pictures are helpful because they represent a promise or hope of the mass of a tractor. Photographs help and motion pictures would do pretty good as they are a sort of promise or hope of the mass but … BTS
It is important to understand that educating a person in a mass that he does not have and which is not available can produce some nonoptimum physical reactions. You have to understand this data in its purity — and that is that educating a person in a mass that they don’t have and which isn’t available produces physiological reactions. BTS
If you were trying to teach a fellow all about tractors but you did not show him any tractors, he would wind up with a face that felt squashed, with headaches and with his stomach feeling funny. He would feel dizzy from time to time and often his eyes would hurt. You’re trying to teach this fellow all about tractors and you’re not giving him any tractors — well he’s going to wind up with a face that feels squashed, with headaches and with his stomach feeling funny. He’s going to feel dizzy from time to time and very often his eyes are going to hurt. BTS
This datum has great application. It’s a physiological datum that has to do with processing and the field of the mind. BTS
For example, if a child were studying and felt sick and it was traced back to a lack of mass, the positive remedy would be to supply the mass — the object itself or a reasonable substitute — and the child’s sickness could rapidly clear up. If a child felt sick in the field of study and it were traced back to this one, the positive remedy would be to supply the mass — the object or a reasonable substitute — and it would clear it up. BTS
This barrier to study — the studying of something without its mass ever being around — produces very distinctly recognizable reactions. This one of studying the something without its mass ever being around produces the most distinctly recognizable reactions. BTS
The Second Barrier: Too Steep a Gradient    
A gradient is a gradual approach to something taken step by step, level by level, each step or level being, of itself, easily attainable — so that finally, quite complicated and difficult activities can be achieved with relative ease. The term gradient also applies to each of the steps taken in such an approach. GRADIENT, 1 . a gradual approach to something, taken step by step, level by level, each step or level being, of itself, easily surmountable — so that, finally, quite complicated and difficult activities or high states of being can be achieved with relative ease.. TD
When one hits too steep a gradient in studying a subject, You’ve hit too steep a gradient. BTS
a sort of confusion or reelingness results. It is a sort of a confusion or a reelingness that goes with this one. BTS
This is the second barrier to study.    
Say you were to find a person who was studying about engines and he was confused and sort of reeling.    
You would know that there had been too much of a jump from studying one type of engine to studying a more complicated type of engine. The person did not really understand something about the first type of engine but jumped to studying the next type of engine and this was too steep a gradient for him. There was too much of a jump because he didn’t understand what he was doing and he jumped to the next thing and that was too steep BTS
The person assigns all of his difficulties to the new type of engine. he will assign all of his difficulties to this new thing. BTS
But the difficulty really lies at the tail end of his study of the first engine, the engine he felt he understood. It’s really at the tail end of what he understood BTS
The remedy for too steep a gradient is to cut back the gradient. Find out when the person was not confused about what he was studying and then find out what new action he undertook to do. The remedy for this one of too steep a gradient is cutting back. Find out when he was not confused on the gradient, then what new action he undertook to do. BTS
Find out what he felt he understood well just before he got all confused. Find what action he understood well. Just before he was all confused what did he understand well BTS
You will find that there is something in this area — the area where he felt he understood it — which he did not really understand. and then we find out that he didn’t understand it well. BTS
When this is cleared up, the student will be able to progress again.    
This barrier of too steep a gradient is more evident and most applicable in activities in which there is doingness involved, but it also applies in subjects that are mainly concerned with thought. Gradients are more pronounced in the field of doingness but they still hang over into the field of understanding. BTS
When a person is found to be terribly confused on the second action he was supposed to do, it is safe to assume that he never really understood the first action. We find he was terribly confused on the second action he was supposed to do. We must assume then that he never really got out of the first one. BTS
The Third — and Most lmportant Barrier: The Misunderstood Word    
The third and most important barrier to study is the misunderstood word. A misunderstood word is a word which is not understood or wrongly understood.    
An entirely different set of physical reactions can occur when one reads past words he does not understand. Reading on past a word that was not understood gives one a distinctly blank feeling or a washed-out feeling. An entirely different set of physiological reactions brought about through — a bypassed definition. A bypassed definition gives one a distinctly blank feeling or a washed-out feeling. BTS
A 'not-there' feeling A not-there feeling BTS
and a sort of nervous hysteria can follow that. and a sort of nervous hysteria will follow in the back of that. BTS
The confusion or inability to grasp or learn comes AFTER a word that the person did not have defined and understood.    
A misunderstood definition or a not-comprehended definition or an undefined word can even cause a person to give up studying a subject and leave a course or class. Leaving in this way is called a ‘blow.’ The manifestation of ‘blow’ stems from this 3rd aspect of study which is the misunderstood definition or the not comprehended definition, the undefined word. BTS
A person does not necessarily blow because of the other barriers to study — lack of mass or too steep a gradient. These simply produce physical phenomena. The person doesn’t necessarily blow on these other two — they are not pronouncedly blow phenomena. They are simply physiological phenomena. BTS
But the misunderstood word can cause a student to blow. That’s the one that produces the blow. BTS
The misunderstood word is much more important than the other two. The misunderstood word establishes aptitude and lack of aptitude and this is what psychologists have been trying to test for years without recognizing what it was. This one of the misunderstood definition is so much more important. It’s the make-up of human relations, the mind and subjects. It establishes aptitude and lack of aptitude and it’s what psychologists have been trying to test for years without recognizing what it was. BTS
It is the misunderstood word. The misunderstood word. BTS
This is all that many study difficulties go back to and it produces such a vast panorama of mental effects that it itself is the prime factor involved with stupidity and many other unwanted conditions. That’s all it goes back to and that produces such a vast panorama of mental effects that it itself is the prime factor involved with stupidity and the prime factor involved with many other things. BTS
There is some word in the field of art that the person who is unable in that field did not define or understand, and that is followed by an inability to act in the field of art. There is some word in the field of art that the person who is inept didn’t define or understand and that is followed by an inability to act in the field of the arts. BTS
If a person didn't have misunderstoods, his talent might or might not be present, but his doingness would be present. If a person didn't have misunderstoods his talent might or might not be present but his doingness would be present. BTS
We can't say that Joe would paint as well as Bill, but we can say that the inability of Joe to paint compared with the ability of Joe to do the motions of painting is dependent exclusively and only upon definitions — exclusively and only upon definitions. We can't say that Joe would paint as well as Bill if both were unaberrated in the field of art, but we can say that the inability of Joe to paint compared with the ability of Joe to do the motions of painting is dependent exclusively and only upon definitions — exclusively and only upon definitions. BTS
This is very important because it tells one what happens to doingness and it also tells one that the restoration of doingness depends only upon the restoration of understanding of the misunderstood word. That's very important because it tells you what happens to doingness and that the restoration of doingness depends only upon the restoration of understanding on the misunderstood word — misunderstood definition. BTS
This is very simple technology. It has a technology which is a very simple technology. BTS
It is a sweepingly fantastic discovery in the field of education and has great application. It IS a sweepingly fantastic discovery in the field of education and don’t neglect it. BTS
This discovery of the importance of the misunderstood word actually opens the gate to education. And although this one has been given last, it is the most important of the barriers to study. Well that opens the gate to Education. Although I’ve given this one of the misunderstood definition last it is the most important one. BTS
Chapter three: Understanding words "CLEARING WORDS," HCO Bulletin of 23 March 1978RA ("CW")

"SCIENTOLOGY
TRAINING – TWIN CHECKOUTS," HCO Policy Letter of 26 August 1965 ("STTC")

"SIMPLE WORDS," HCO Bulletin of 4 September 1971 Issue III ("SW")

 
Handling misunderstood words    
A misunderstood word will remain misunderstood until one "clears" the meaning of the word. Once the word is fully understood, it is said to be "cleared." The procedures used to locate and clear up words the student has misunderstood in his studies is called Word Clearing. There are several different methods of Word Clearing which will be covered later in this book. The first thing to learn is the exact procedure to be used in clearing any word or symbol one comes across in reading or studying that he does not understand.    
How to clear a word    
1. Have a dictionary to hand while reading so that you can clear any misunderstood word or symbol you come across. A simple but good dictionary can be found that does not itself contain large words within the definitions of the words which have to be cleared.    
2. When you come across a word or symbol that you do not understand,    
the first thing to do is get a dictionary and look rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the context in which the word was being used. Read that definition and make up sentences using the word that way until you have a clear concept of that meaning of the word. This could require ten or more sentences. The first step is to look rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the context in which the word was misunderstood. One reads the definition and uses it in sentences until one has a clear concept of that meaning of the word. This could require ten or more sentences. CW
3. Then clear each of the other definitions of that word, using each one in sentences until you clearly understand each definition. Then one clears each of the other definitions of that word, using each in sentences until one has a conceptual understanding of each definition. CW
When a word has several different definitions, you cannot limit your understanding of the word to one definition only and call the word "understood." You must be able to understand the word when, at a later date, it is used in a different way. When a word has several different definitions, one cannot limit his understanding of the word to one definition only and call the word "understood." One must be able to understand the word when, at a later date, it is used in a different way. CW
Don’t, however, clear the technical or specialized definitions (math, biology, etc.) or obsolete (no longer used) or archaic (ancient and no longer in general use) definitions unless the word is being used that way in the context where it was misunderstood. Don’t clear the technical or specialized definitions (math, biology, etc.) or obsolete (no longer used) or archaic (ancient and no longer in general use) definitions unless the word is being used that way in the context where it was misunderstood. CW
4. The next thing to do is to clear the derivation, which is the explanation of where the word came from originally. This will help you gain a basic understanding of the word. The next thing to do is to clear the derivation — which is the explanation of where the word came from originally. This will help gain a basic understanding of the word. CW
5. Most dictionaries give the idioms of a word. An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example, all in is an English idiom meaning "very tired." Most dictionaries give the idioms of a word. An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example, "give in" is an English idiom meaning "yield." CW
(In a sentence this might be used, "Joe did not want to go to the party because he was feeling all in.")    
Quite a few words in English are used in idioms and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. If there are idioms for the word that you are clearing, they are cleared as well. Quite a few words in English have idiomatic uses and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. These idioms have to be cleared. CW
6. Clear any other information given about the word, such as notes on its usage, synonyms, etc., so you have a full understanding of the word. One must also clear any other information given about the word, such as notes on its usage, synonyms, etc. so as to have a full understanding of the word. CW
7. If you encounter a misunderstood word or symbol in the definition of a word being cleared, you must clear it right away using this same procedure and then return to the definition you were clearing. (Dictionary symbols and abbreviations are usually given in the front of the dictionary.) If one encounters a misunderstood word or symbol in the definition of a word being cleared, one must clear it right away using this same procedure and then return to the definition one was clearing. (Dictionary symbols and abbreviations are usually given in the front of the dictionary.) CW
However,    
if you find yourself spending a lot of time clearing words within definitions of words, you should get a simpler dictionary. A good dictionary will enable you to clear a word without having to look up a lot of other ones in the process. If you find yourself spending a lot of time clearing words within definitions of words, you should get a simpler dictionary. A good dictionary will enable you to clear a word without having to look up a lot of other ones in the process. CW
Example of Clearing a Word EXAMPLE CW
Let’s say that you are reading the sentence, "He used to clean chimneys for a living," and you’re not sure what chimneys means. You are reading the sentence "He used to clean chimneys for a living" and you’re not sure what "chimneys" means. CW
You find it in the dictionary and look through the definitions for the one that applies. It says "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire." You find it in the dictionary and look through the definitions for the one that applies. It says "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire." CW
You’re not sure what flue means so you look that up. It says "A channel or passage for smoke, air or gases." That fits and makes sense, so you use it in some sentences until you have a clear concept of it. You’re not sure what "flue" means so you look that up: it says "A channel or passage for smoke, air or gasses of combustion." That fits and makes sense so you use it in some sentences until you have a clear concept of it. CW
Flue in this dictionary has other definitions, each of which you would clear and use in sentences. "Flue" in this dictionary has other definitions, each of which you would clear and use in sentences. CW
Next, read the derivation the dictionary gives for the word flue. Look up the derivation of the word "flue." CW
Now go back to chimney. The definition, "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire," now makes sense, so YOU use it in sentences until you have a concept of it. Now go back to "chimney." The definition "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire," now makes sense so you use it in sentences until you have a concept of it. CW
You then clear the other definitions. If the dictionary you are using has specialized or obsolete definitions, you would skip them as they aren’t in common usage. You then clear the other definitions. One dictionary has an obsolete definition and a geological definition. You would skip both of these as they aren’t in common usage. CW
Now clear up the derivation of the word. You find that chimney originally came from the Greek word kaminos, which means "furnace." Now clear up the derivation of the word. One finds in the derivation that it originally came from the Greek word "kaminos," which means "furnace." CW
If the word had any notes about its use, synonyms or idioms, they would all be cleared too. If the word had any synonym studies, usage notes or idioms, they would all be cleared too. CW
That would be the end of clearing chimney. That would be the end of clearing "chimney." CW
The above is the way a word should be cleared. The above is the way a word should be cleared. CW
When words are understood, communication can take place, and with communication any given subject can be understood. When words are understood, communication can take place and with communication any given subject can be understood. CW
Simple Words SIMPLE WORDS SW
You might suppose at once that it is the BIG words or the technical words which are most misunderstood. You might suppose at once that it is the BIG words or the technical words which are most misunderstood. SW
This is NOT the case. This is not the case. SW
On actual test, it was English simple words and NOT technical words which prevented understanding. On actual test, it was English simple words and not Dianetics and Scientology words which prevented understanding. SW
Words like "a," "the," "exist," "such" and other "everybody knows" words show up with great frequency as being misunderstood. Words like "a", "the", "exist", "such" and other "everybody knows" words show up with great frequency when doing a Method 2 Word Clearing. They read. SW
It takes a BIG dictionary to define these simple words fully. This is another oddity. The small dictionaries also suppose "everybody knows." It takes a BIG dictionary to define these simple words fully. This is another oddity. The small dictionaries also suppose everybody knows. SW
It is almost incredible to see that a university graduate has gone through years and years of study of complex subjects and yet does not know what "or" or "by" or "an" means. It has to be seen to be believed. Yet when cleaned up, his whole education turns from a solid mass of question marks to a clean useful view. It is almost incredible to see that a university graduate has gone through years and years of study of complex subjects and yet does not know what "or" or "by" or "an" means. It has to be seen to be believed. Yet when cleaned up his whole education turns from a solid mass of question marks to a clean useful view. SW
A test of schoolchildren in Johannesburg once showed that intelligence DECREASED with each new year of school! A test of schoolchildren in Johannesburg once showed that Intelligence decreased with each new year of school! SW
The answer to the puzzle was simply that each year they added a few dozen more crushing misunderstood words onto an already confused vocabulary that no one ever got them to look up. The answer to the puzzle was simply that each year they added a few dozen more crushing misunderstood words onto an already confused vocabulary that no one ever got them to look up. SW
Stupidity is the effect of misunderstood words. Stupidity is the effect of misunderstood words. SW
In those areas which give man the most trouble, you will find the most alteration of fact, the most confused and conflicting ideas and of course the greatest number of misunderstood words. Take "economics" for example. In those areas which give Man the most trouble you will find the most alteration of fact, the most confused and conflicting ideas and of course the greatest number of misunderstood words. Take "economics" for example. SW
The subject of psychology began its texts by saying they did not know what the word means. So the subject itself never arrived. Professor Wundt of Leipzig University in 1879 perverted the term. It really means just a study (ology) of the soul (psyche). But Wundt, working under the eye of Bismarck the greatest of German military fascists, at the height of German war ambitions, had to deny man had a soul. So there went the whole subject! Men were thereafter animals (it is all right to kill animals) and man had no soul, so the word psychology could no longer be defined. The subject of psychology began its texts by saying they did not know what the word means. So the subject itself never arrived. Professor Wundt of Leipzig University in 1879 perverted the term. It really means just "a study (ology) of the soul (psyche)". But Wundt, working under the eye of Bismarck, the greatest of German military fascists, at the height of German war ambitions, had to deny Man had a soul. So there went the whole subject! Men were thereafter animals (it is all right to kill animals) and Man had no soul, so the word psychology could no longer be defined. SW
THE EARLIEST MISUNDERSTOOD WORD IN A SUBJECT IS A KEY TO LATER MISUNDERSTOOD WORDS IN THAT SUBJECT. The earliest misunderstood word in a subject is a key to later misunderstood words in that subject. SW
In studying a foreign language it is often found that the grammar words of one’s own language that tell about the grammar in the foreign language are basic to not being able to learn the foreign language. In studying a foreign language it is often found that the grammar words of one’s own language that tell about the grammar in the foreign language are basic to not being able to learn the foreign language. SW
Not knowing the meanings of these simple words can block one’s understanding of a subject.    
One has to look them up when they aren’t understood, no matter how "simple" they may seem. Have him look it up no matter how simple the word is. SW
The Two Phenomena of Misunderstood Words    
First Phenomenon FIRST PHENOMENON STTC
When a student misses understanding a word, the section right after that word is a blank in his memory. When a student misses understanding a word, the section right after that word is a blank in his memory. STTC
You can always trace back to the word just before the blank, get it understood and find miraculously that the former blank area is not now blank in the material he is studying. The above is pure magic. You can always trace back to the word just before the blank, get it understood and find miraculously that the former blank area is not now blank in the text. The above is pure magic. STTC
Second Phenomenon SECOND PHENOMENON STTC
As covered earlier, when a word is not grasped, the student then goes into a noncomprehension (blankness) of things immediately after. When a word is not grasped, the student then goes into a non-comprehension (blankness) of things immediately after. STTC
This is followed by the student’s solution for the blank condition which is to individuate from it — separate self from it. This is followed by the student’s solution for the blank condition which is to individuate from it — separate self from it. STTC
Now that the student is individuated from the area, he then commits harmful acts against the more general area. Now being something else than the blank area, the student commits overts against the more general area. STTC
This is followed by an effort to restrain himself from committing more harmful acts and efforts to find ways he has been wronged. These overts, of course, are followed by restraining himself from committing overts. STTC
This is followed by various mental and physical conditions and by various complaints, faultfinding and look-what-you-did-to-me. This is followed by various mental and physical conditions and by various complaints, fault-finding and look-what-you-did-to-me. STTC
But most educational systems, frowning on blows as they do, cause the student to really withdraw himself from whatever he was studying and set up in its place mental machinery which can receive and give back sentences and phrases. But the system of education, frowning on blows as it does, causes the student to really withdraw self from the study subject (whatever he was studying) and set up in its place a circuit which can receive and give back sentences and phrases. STTC
We now have "the quick student who somehow never applies what he learns." We now have "the quick student who somehow never applies what he learns". STTC
This is known as a "glib" student.    
The specific phenomenon then is that a student can study some words and give them back and yet be no participant to the action. The student gets A+ on exams but can’t apply the data. The specific phenomena then is that a student can study some words and give them back and yet be no participant to the action. The student gets A+ on exams but can’t apply the data. STTC
The very bright student who can’t yet use the data isn’t there at all. He has long since ceased to confront the subject matter or the subject. The "very bright" student who yet can’t use the data isn’t there at all. He has long since ceased to confront the subject matter or the subject. STTC
The thoroughly dull student is just stuck in the noncomprehend blankness following some misunderstood word. The thoroughly dull student is just stuck in the non-comprehend blankness following some misunderstood word. STTC
The cure for either of these conditions of "bright noncomprehension" or "dull" is to find the missing word. The cure for either of these conditions of "bright non-comprehension" or "dull" is to find the missing word. STTC
Chapter four: Dictionaries "DICTIONARIES," HCO Bulletin of 13 February 1981 ("D")

"CLEARING
WORDS," HCO Bulletin of 23 March 1978RA ("CW")

"DINKY DICTIONARIES," HCO Bulletin of 19 June 1972 ("DD")

 
How to Use a Dictionary    
Diction comes from the Latin word meaning a word or to say; -ary means a collection of or a thing connected with.    
A dictionary tells a person how to say a word, what it means, how to spell it and how to use it. Dictionaries usually will tell you where a word comes from.    
A dictionary is a word book.    
Definitions in dictionaries are not always complete and in some cases are not totally correct. Remember that dictionaries are written by people who themselves might have misunderstoods. So do not treat them as religious texts which must be believed. They are mostly correct but they are just tools.    
The Alphabet    
Knowledge of the alphabet is the key to finding words quickly. To use a dictionary rapidly one has to be able to recite the alphabet rapidly and know the relations of letters in the alphabet one to the other instantly. Otherwise, one can get lost and it will take a long time to look up words. One literally has to know the alphabet backwards and forwards.    
Words are arranged in alphabetical order in all dictionaries. A dictionary has a section for each letter of the alphabet. The first letter of the word one is looking up tells one which section of the dictionary to look in. Within any section, words are further arranged alphabetically by their second letters, then their third letters and so on. For instance, the word cat would be found after the word castle and before the word catch.    
Guide Words    
At the top of each page of the dictionary, there are words printed in black heavy type. They are called guide words. Guide words show the first and the last words printed on that page or in that column.    
The page of the dictionary one wants can be found by looking at the guide words on each page. Guide words help one find the word being looked for faster.    
Pronunciation    
Pronunciation means the way something is said. A dictionary tells one how to pronounce a word. The pronunciation of a word is given in the dictionary right after the word itself and is usually in parentheses.    
Pronunciation is shown by:    
a. How the word is divided into syllables (a syllable is a word or a small part of a word which can be pronounced with a single, uninterrupted sounding of the voice).    
For example, the word elephant contains three syllables:    
el e phant    
b. How the word, if it has two or more syllables, is accented (the emphasizing of one syllable of a word more than another).    
el e phant    
The accent mark tells one that the first syllable of the word is the one that is said with emphasis when pronouncing it.    
c. How the individual letters in a word sound through use of a pronunciation key.    
el ə fənt    
Dictionaries use letters and special marks to show how a word sounds. Generally, there are pronunciation keys at the bottom of each page or every other page which list out the most important letters and marks.    
There is also a complete listing near the front which gives the use of every letter or mark used in that dictionary to show how to pronounce a word. By looking at the letters and/or marks in parentheses and checking the pronunciation key at the bottom of the page (or near the front of the dictionary), one learns how the word is pronounced. For instance, to learn how the first "e" of elephant is pronounced, one looks at the key and sees that it is pronounced in the same way as the "e" in the words met and rest. Pronunciation keys differ a bit from dictionary to dictionary but they are all used as described here.    
Parts of Speech    
Following the pronunciation, the dictionary gives an abbreviation which designates the word’s part of speech. The parts of speech are the different things words do, such as name a person, place or thing (noun), show action or state of being (verb), modify or describe another word (adjective or adverb), etc. This helps you to understand how that word is used in speech and writing.    
When the plural form of a word is made differently than by adding -s or -es to the singular, the dictionary also includes the plural form of the word, directly after the part of speech.    
For example, the entry for mouse in most dictionaries would look similar to this:    
mouse (mows) n. (pl. mice)    
Definitions    
Next comes the definition of the word. If it has more than one definition, most dictionaries number them.    
Often dictionaries give examples showing the use of the word. But in clearing a word, it is not enough for the person simply to read these examples. He has to make up several of his own before he really knows the word.    
Dictionaries also often give specialized definitions when the word has a special meaning in such subjects as law, sports, science, music and so on. They often give slang (words or phrases that are not considered to be "standard" in the language) definitions for words.    
Idioms    
An idiom is a phrase or expression that has a meaning different from what the words suggest in their usual meaning. For example, to catch one’s eye is an idiom which means to get one’s attention. An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example, "give in" is an English idiom meaning "yield." CW
Most dictionaries include the idioms of a word after the definitions. Quite a few words in English have idiomatic uses and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. CW
Derivation    
A word’s derivation (a statement of the origin of a word) is put in brackets. The derivation can be very important to one’s full understanding of the word. Words get altered through the ages. By seeing the derivation one can find out what the word originally meant. The word’s derivation is usually found at the beginning or the end of the definitions in the dictionary.    
In the derivation certain signs and abbreviations are used.    
The sign < means derived from.    
The sign + means and.    
The word or words it comes from are written in italics. Usually abbreviations are used to show the language the word comes from. For example, OE would mean Old English, which denotes the English spoken up to approximately the twelfth century. These abbreviations are defined in the dictionary. Sometimes at the end of the derivation there is a word written in capital letters. This means that further data on the origin of the word can be found under the derivation of the word in capitals.    
Dictionary Tips    
How to Break Up a Word    
Occasionally, one cannot find a specific word in the dictionary, but by separating a word into its component parts one can look up each part and gain its meaning. Take, for example, the word anti-tax. This word is not defined in most dictionaries, but one can still determine its meaning. One looks up the first part, anti-, and finds that it means opposed to. One then looks up the second part of the word, tax, and finds that it means money regularly collected from citizens by their rulers. When one combines the two parts, one gets the definition of antitax which means opposed to collecting of money from citizens by their rulers.    
Dictionaries sometimes contain lists of such words which are not defined but which can be broken down into their component parts and the meaning determined.    
Technical Words    
Words of a special technology require a dictionary composed of terms for that field, e.g., a photographic dictionary or a nautical dictionary.    
To clear a foreign word, get a dictionary of that language. There are two kinds of foreign language dictionaries. One is a dictionary entirely in the foreign language. The other is half in the language the person speaks and half in the foreign language. For instance, in an English/Swedish dictionary, half of the dictionary is English with Swedish words next to it, and the other half is Swedish with its English counterpart next to it. One would use the all- foreign dictionary only when the person being word cleared knew that language fluently.    
Dictionaries contain a lot of information. This chapter covers the basics of how to use one. The format of individual dictionaries varies one to the next but the above fundamentals apply to them all. Dictionaries contain sections in the front which explain how they are used. If one encounters a word, symbol or abbreviation in the entry of a word that he does not understand he can always turn to this introductory section for help.    
Recommended Dictionaries    
Dictionaries are vital and important tools in studying or learning any subject. However, current dictionaries vary in accuracy and usefulness and many of these modern dictionaries are virtually useless and can actually confuse a student due to their false and omitted definitions and grammatical errors. So the dictionary that a student chooses to use is important and can actually make a difference in his success as a student. Dictionaries are vital and important tools in studying or learning any subject. However, current dictionaries vary in accuracy and usefulness and many of these modern dictionaries are virtually useless and can actually confuse a person due to their false and omitted definitions and grammatical and other errors. So the dictionary that a student chooses to use is important and can actually make a difference in his success as a student. D
As dictionaries are such an important factor in the learning and application of any subject, a list of some dictionaries that have been found to be the best of those currently available is included here. As dictionaries are such an important factor in the learning and application of Scientology (or any subject for that matter) I thought I had better recommend some dictionaries that have been found to be the best of those currently available. D
Webster New World Dictionary for Young Readers: Webster’s New World Dictionary for Young Readers: D
This is a very simple American dictionary. It is available in most bookstores and is published by New World Dictionaries/Simon & Schuster. This is a very simple American dictionary. It is published by William Collins. D
It is a hardbound volume and does not contain derivations. When using this dictionary, a student must be sure to clear the derivations in a larger dictionary. The definitions in this dictionary are quite good. It is a hardbound volume and does not contain derivations. When using this dictionary a student must be sure to clear the derivations in a larger dictionary. The definitions in this dictionary are quite good. D
Oxford American Dictionary: Oxford American Dictionary: D
This is a very good American dictionary, simpler than the college dictionaries yet more advanced than the beginning dictionary listed above. It does not list derivations of the words. It is quite an excellent dictionary and very popular with students who want to use an intermediate dictionary. This is a very good American dictionary, simpler than the college dictionaries yet more advanced than the beginning dictionary listed above. It does not list derivations of the words. It is quite an excellent dictionary and very popular with students who want to use an intermediate dictionary. D
It is published in paperback by Avon Books and in hardback by Oxford University Press. It is published in paperback by Avon Books, a division of the Hearst Corporation, 959 Eighth Ave., New York, New York, 10019, and in hardback by Oxford University Press, New York. D
Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, Student Edition: The Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language College Edition: D
This is an intermediate-level American dictionary which includes derivations. It is published by New World Dictionaries/Simon & Schuster and is available in most bookstores.    
The Random House College Dictionary: The Random House College Dictionary Revised Edition: D
This is a college dictionary and somewhat of a higher gradient than the dictionaries listed above. This is a one-volume American dictionary published in the US by Random House, Inc., and in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited. This is a college dictionary and somewhat of a higher gradient than the dictionaries listed above. This is a one volume American dictionary published in the US by Random House Inc., New York and in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto. D
This Random House dictionary contains a large number of slang definitions and idioms and also gives good derivations. This Random House dictionary contains a large number of slang definitions and idioms and also gives good derivations. D
The Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, College Edition: The Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language College Edition: D
This is an American college dictionary published by New World Dictionaries/Simon & Schuster. It is a one-volume dictionary and gives most of the slang definitions and idioms. It also has good derivations. This is an American college dictionary published by Simon and Schuster of New York. It is a one volume dictionary and gives most of the slang definitions and idioms. It also has good derivations. D
The Concise Oxford Dictionary: The Concise Oxford Dictionary: D
This is a very concise English dictionary but is not a simple or beginner’s dictionary. It is a small, one-volume dictionary. It uses a lot of abbreviations which may take some getting used to, but once the abbreviations are mastered students find this dictionary as easy to use as any other similarly advanced dictionary. It is less complicated in its definitions than the usual college dictionary and has the added benefit that the definitions given are well stated—in other words, it does not give the same definition reworded into several different definitions, the way some dictionaries do. This is a very concise English dictionary, but is not a simple or beginner’s dictionary. It is a small one volume dictionary. It uses a lot of abbreviations which may take some getting used to, but once the abbreviations are mastered students find this dictionary as easy to use as any other similarly advanced dictionary. It is less complicated in its definitions than the usual college dictionary and has the added benefit that the definitions given are well stated—in other words it does not give the same definition reworded into several different definitions, the way some dictionaries do. D
This dictionary is printed in Great Britain and the United States by the Oxford University Press. This dictionary is printed in Great Britain and the United States by the Oxford University Press. D
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary: The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary: D
This is a two-volume English dictionary and is a shorter version of The Oxford English Dictionary. It is quite up-to-date and is an ideal dictionary for fairly literate’6 students. Even if not used regularly, it makes a very good reference dictionary. The definitions given in the Oxford dictionaries are usually more accurate and give a better idea of the meaning of the word than any other dictionary. This is a two volume English dictionary and is a shorter version of The Oxford English Dictionary. It is quite up-to-date and is an ideal dictionary for fairly literate students. Even if not used regularly it makes a very good reference dictionary. The definitions given in the Oxford dictionaries are usually more accurate and give a better idea of the meaning of the word than any other dictionary. D
This Oxford dictionary is also printed by the Oxford University Press. This Oxford dictionary is also printed by the Oxford University Press. D
The Oxford English Dictionary: The Oxford English Dictionary: D
This is by far the largest English dictionary and is actually the principal dictionary of the English language. It consists of twenty volumes. (There is a Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary in which the exact text of The Oxford English Dictionary is duplicated in very small print which is read through a magnifying glass. Reduced in this manner the whole thing fits into two volumes.) This is by far the largest English dictionary and is the principal dictionary of the English language. It consists of 12 volumes and several supplementary volumes. (There is a Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary which the exact text of The Oxford English Dictionary is duplicated in very small print which is read through a magnifying glass. Reduced in this manner the whole thing fits into two volumes.) D
For many students this dictionary may be too comprehensive to use on a regular basis. (For some students huge dictionaries can be confusing as the words they use in their definitions are often too big or too rare and make one chase through twenty new words to get the meaning of the original.) For many students this dictionary may be too comprehensive to use on a regular basis. (For some students huge dictionaries can be confusing as the words they use in their definitions are often too big or too rare and make one chase through 20 new words to get the meaning of the original.) D
Although many students will not use this as their only dictionary, it is a must for every classroom and will be found useful in clearing certain words, verifying data from other dictionaries, etc. It Is a valuable reference dictionary and is sometimes the only dictionary that correctly defines a particular word. Although many students will not use this as their only dictionary, it is a must for every course room and will be found useful in clearing certain words, verifying data from other dictionaries, etc. It is a valuable reference dictionary and is sometimes the only dictionary that correctly defines a particular word. D
These Oxfords are also printed by the Oxford University Press. If your local bookstore does not stock them, they will be able to order them for you. These Oxfords are also printed by the Oxford University Press. If your local bookstore does not stock them they will be able to order them for you. D
From the dictionaries recommended here, a student should be able to find one that suits him. Whatever dictionary one chooses, it should be the correct gradient for him. For instance, you wouldn’t give a foreign language student, who barely knows English, the big Oxford English Dictionary to use in his studies! From the dictionaries recommended here a student should be able to find one that suits him. Whatever dictionary one chooses, it should be the correct gradient for him. For instance, you wouldn’t give a foreign language student, who barely knows English, the big Oxford to use in his studies! D
Dinky Dictionaries DINKY DICTIONARIES D
"Dinky dictionaries" are the kind you can fit in your pocket. They are usually paperback and sold at magazine counters in drugstores and grocery stores. "Dinky dictionaries" are the kind you can fit in your pocket. They are usually paperback and sold at magazine counters in drug stores and grocery stores. D
In learning the meaning of words, small dictionaries are very often a greater liability than they are a help. In learning the meaning of words small dictionaries are very often a greater liability than they are a help. DD
The meanings they give are often circular: Like "CAT: An Animal." "ANIMAL: A Cat." They do not give enough meaning to escape the circle. The meanings they give are often circular: Like "CAT: An Animal." "ANIMAL: A Cat." They do not give enough meaning to escape the circle. DD
The meanings given are often inadequate to get a real concept of the word. The meanings given are often inadequate to get a real concept of the word. DD
The words are too few and even common words are often missing. The words are too few and even common words are often missing. DD
Little pocketbook dictionaries may have their uses for traveling and reading newspapers, but they do get people in trouble. People have been seen to find a word in them and then look around in total confusion. For the dinky dictionary did not give the full meaning or the second meaning they really needed. Little pocket book dictionaries may have their uses for traveling and reading newspapers, but they do get people in trouble. I have seen people find a word in them and then look around in total confusion. For the dinky dictionary did not give the full meaning or the second meaning they really needed. DD
So the dinky dictionary may fit in your pocket but not in your mind. "Dinky dictionaries" are the kind you can fit in your pocket. D
Don’t use a dinky dictionary. Don’t use a dinky dictionary. D
Dictionaries and a Person’s Own Language DICTIONARIES AND A PERSON’S OWN LANGUAGE D
English dictionaries and American dictionaries differ in some of their definitions, as the Americans (USA) and English (Britain) define some words differently. English dictionaries and American dictionaries differ in some of their definitions, as the Americans and English define some words differently. D
An English dictionary will have different applications of words that are specifically English (British). These usages won’t necessarily be found in American dictionaries, as they are not part of the American English language. Different dictionaries have things in them which are unique to that language. An English dictionary will have different applications of words that are specifically British. These usages won’t necessarily be found in American dictionaries, as they are not part of the American version of the English language. Different dictionaries have things in them which are unique to that language. D
The Oxford English Dictionary is a good example of an English dictionary for the English. In addition to The Oxford English Dictionary, the Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary mentioned above is a good example of an English dictionary for the English. D
For the most part a student’s dictionary should correspond to his own language. This does not mean that an American shouldn’t use a British dictionary (or vice versa), but if he does, he should be aware of the above and check words in a dictionary of his own language as needed. For the most part a student’s dictionary should correspond to his own language. This does Dot mean that an American shouldn’t use an English dictionary (or vice versa), but if he does he should be aware of the above and check words in a dictionary of his own language as needed. D
False and Omitted Definitions FALSE AND OMITTED DEFINITIONS D
It has been found that some dictionaries leave out definitions and may even contain false definitions. If, when using a dictionary, a student comes across what he suspects to be a false definition, there is a handling that can be done. The first thing would be to ensure there are no misunderstoods in the definition in question and then he should consult another dictionary and check its definition for the word being cleared. This may require more than one dictionary. In this way any false definitions can be resolved. It has been found that some dictionaries leave out definitions and may even contain false definitions. If, when using a dictionary, a student comes across what he suspects to be a false definition there is a handling that can be done. The first thing would be to ensure there are no misunderstoods in the definition in question and then he should consult another dictionary and check its definition for the word being cleared. This may require more than one dictionary. In this way any false definitions can be resolved. D
Other dictionaries, encyclopedias and textbooks should be on hand for reference. Other dictionaries, encyclopedias and text books should be on hand for reference. D
If a student runs into an omitted definition or a suspected omitted definition, then other dictionaries or reference books should be consulted and the omitted definition found and cleared. If a student runs into an omitted definition, or a suspected omitted definition, then other dictionaries or reference books should be consulted and the omitted definition found and cleared. D
Derivations DERIVATIONS D
A derivation is a statement of the origin of a word. A derivation is a statement of the origin of a word. D
Words originated somewhere and meant something originally. Through the ages they have sometimes become altered in meaning. Words originated somewhere and meant something originally. Through ages they have sometimes become altered in meaning. D
Derivations are important in getting a full understanding of words. By understanding the origin of a word, one will have a far greater grasp of the concept of that word. Students find that they are greatly assisted in understanding a word fully and conceptually if they know the word’s derivation. Derivations are important in getting a full understanding of words. By understanding the origin of a word, one will have a far greater grasp of the concept of that word. Students find that they are greatly assisted in understanding a word fully and conceptually if they know the word’s derivation. D
A student must always clear the derivation of any word he looks up. A student must always clear the derivation of any word he looks up. D
It will commonly be found that a student does not know how to read the derivations of the words in most dictionaries. The most common error they make is not understanding that when there is a word in the derivation which is fully capitalized it means that that word appears elsewhere in the dictionary and probably contains more information about the derivation. (For example, the derivation of "thermometer" is given in one dictionary as THERMO + METER. Looking at the derivation of "thermo," it says it is from the Greek word therme, meaning heat. And the derivation of "meter" is given as coming from the French metre, which is from the Latin "metrum," which is itself from the Greek metron meaning measure.) By understanding and using these fully capitalized words, a student can get a full picture of a word’s derivation. It will commonly be found that a student does not know how to read the derivations of the words in most dictionaries. The most common error they make is not understanding that when there is a word in the derivation which is fully capitalized it means that that word appears elsewhere in the dictionary and probably contains more information about the derivation. (For example, the derivation of "thermometer" is given in one dictionary as "THERMO + METER". Looking at the derivation of "thermo" it says it is a combined form of the Greek thermos, meaning hot and therme, meaning heat. And the derivation of "meter" is given as coming from the French metre, which is from the Greek metron, meaning measure.) By understanding and using these fully capitalized words a student can get a full picture of a word’s derivation. D
If a student has trouble with derivations, it is most likely because of the above plus a misunderstood word or symbol in the derivation. These points can be cleared up quite easily where they are giving difficulty. If a student has trouble with derivations it is most likely because of the above plus a misunderstood word or symbol in the derivation. These points can be cleared up quite easily where they are giving difficulty. D
An excellent dictionary of derivations is The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, also printed by the Oxford University Press. An excellent dictionary of derivations is The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, also printed by the Oxford University Press. D
We have long known the importance of clearing words and it stands to reason that the dictionary one uses to do this would also be quite important. We have long known the importance of clearing words and it stands to reason that the dictionary one uses to do this would also be quite important. D
Chapter five: Demonstration "CLAY TABLE TRAINING," HCO Bulletin of 11 October 1967 ("CTT")

"CLAY
TABLE WORK IN TRAINING," HCO Bulletin of 10 December 1970R Issue I ("CTWIT")

"DEMONSTRATIONS," HCO Bulletin of 14 May 1980 ("DEMOS")

"DEMONSTRATION," HCO Bulletin of 15 April 1972R ("DEMO")

 
The Use of Demonstration    
The word demonstration means to show, or to show how something works. It comes from the Latin word demonstrate, to point out, show, prove.    
In studying, a student can do a "demonstration" or "demo" with a "demo kit" which consists of various small objects such as corks, caps, paper clips, pen tops, rubber bands, etc. The student demonstrates an idea or principle with his hands and the pieces of his demo kit. Demo Kit Demonstration – meaning the use of various small objects
such as corks, caps, paper clips, batteries, etc. These objects are kept in
a box or container called a „demo kit“. Each student should have one. The
pieces are used while studying, to represent the things in the material
being read.
DEMOS
If a student ran into something he couldn’t quite figure out, a demo kit would assist him to understand it. By making the different pieces of the demo kit represent the objects he is studying about, the student can move them around and see more clearly how they relate to each other, etc.    
By doing this the student is getting mass to go along with the ideas studied. A demo kit adds mass (physical matter), … to the significance and so
helps the student to study.
DEMOS
Clay Table Training    
Another form of demonstration is using clay figures to demonstrate a concept or principle. This is called clay table training. The purpose of clay table training is:    
1. To make the materials being studied real to the student by making him DEMONSTRATE them in clay. 1. To make the materials being studied real to the student by making him demonstrate them in clay. CTT
2. To give a proper balance of mass and significance. 2. To give a proper balance of mass and significance. CTT
3. To teach the student to apply. 3. To teach the student to apply. CTT
The student is given a word or situation to demonstrate. He does this in clay, labeling each part. The clay SHOWS the thing. It is not just a blob of clay with a label on it. Use small strips of paper for labels. The whole demonstration then has a label of what it is. The student is given a word or auditing action or situation to demonstrate. He then does this in clay, labeling each part. The clay SHOWS the thing. It is not just a blob of clay with a label on it. Use small strips of paper for labels. The whole demonstration then has a label of what it is. CTT
When the student has completed his clay demonstration it is then examined by the Supervisor or another student.    
Before the checkout, the student removes the overall label. The student must be Silent. The examiner must not ask any questions. On the checkout, the student removes the overall label. The student must be silent. The examiner must not ask any questions. CTT
The examiner just looks and figures out what it is. He then tells the student who then shows the examiner the label. If the examiner did not see what it was, it is a flunk. The examiner just looks and figures out what it is. He then tells the student who then shows the examiner the label. If the examiner did not see what it was, it is a flunk. CTT
Clay table must not be reduced to significance by the student explaining or answering questions. Nor is it reduced to significance by long-winded labels of individual parts. The clay shows it, not the label. Clay table must not be reduced to significance by the student explaining or answering questions. Nor is it reduced to significance by long-winded labels of individual parts. The clay shows it, not the label. CTT
The clay demonstrates it. The student must learn the difference between mass and significance. The clay demonstrates it. The student must learn the difference between mass and significance. CTT
For example, the student has to demonstrate a pencil. He makes a thin roll of clay which is surrounded by another layer of clay—the thin roll sticking slightly out of one end. On the other end goes a small cylinder6 of clay. The roll is labeled "lead." The outer layer is labeled "wood." The small cylinder is labeled "rubber." Then a label is made for the whole thing: "pencil." For example, the student has to demonstrate a pencil. He makes a thin roll of clay which is surrounded by another layer of clay – the thin roll sticking slightly out of one end. On the other end goes a small cylinder of clay. The roll is labeled "lead". The outer layer is labeled "wood". The small cylinder is labeled "rubber". Then a label is made for the whole thing: "pencil". CTT
On checkout, the student removes "pencil" before the examiner can see it. If the examiner can look at it and say "It’s a pencil," the student passes. On checkout, the student removes "pencil" before the examiner can see it. If the examiner can look at it and say, "It’s a pencil," the student passes. CTT
Clay Demo Size    
Clay demos must be large. A clay demo should be rather large. CTWIT
One of the purposes of clay table training is to make the materials being studied real to the student. If a student’s clay demo is small (less mass), the reality factor may not be sufficient. And long experience has shown that BIG clay demos are more successful in terms of increasing student understanding.    
ART is no object in clay table work. The forms are crude.    
Labeling Clay Demonstrations    
Each separate thing is labeled that is made on the clay table, no matter how crude the label is. Students usually do labels with scraps of paper written on with a ballpoint. Everything is labeled that is made on the clay table, no matter how crude the label is. Students usually do labels with scraps of paper written on with a ball-point. CTWIT
When cutting out a label, a point is put on one end, making it easy to stick the label into the clay.    
The procedure should go — student makes one object, labels it, makes another object, labels it, makes a third object and puts a label on it and so on in sequence. The procedure should go – student makes one object, labels it, makes another object, labels it, makes a third object and puts a label on it and so on in sequence. CTWIT
This comes from the data that optimum learning requires an equal balance of mass and significance and that too much of one without the other can make the student feel bad.    
If a student makes all the masses of his demonstration at once, without labeling them, he is sitting there with all those significances stacking up in his mind instead of putting down each one (in the form of a label) as he goes. If a student makes all the masses of his demonstration at once, without labeling them, he is sitting there with all those significances stacking up in his mind instead of putting down each one (in the form of a label) as he goes. CTWIT
The correct procedure is label each mass as you go along. The correct procedure is label each mass as you go along. CTWIT
Representing Thoughts in Clay    
Any thought can be represented by a piece of clay and a label. The mass parts are done by clay, the significance or thought parts by label. Any part of the mind can be represented by a piece of clay and a label. The mass parts are done by clay, the significance or thought parts by label. CTWIT
A thin-edged ring of clay with a large hole in it is usually used to signify a pure significance. A thin-edged ring of clay with a large hole in it is usually used to signify a pure significance. CTWIT
Directions of flows or travel are usually indicated with little arrows and this can become important. The arrow can be made out of clay or it can be made as another type of label. It is often lack of data in the demo about which way what is going or which way what is flowing that makes the demo unrecognizable.    
Working Things Out in Clay    
Anything can be demonstrated in clay if you work at it. And just by working on how to demonstrate it or make it into clay and labels brings about renewed understanding. Anything can be so demonstrated if you work at it. And just by working on how to demonstrate it or make it into clay and labels brings about renewed understanding. CTWIT
In the phrase "how do I represent it in clay" is contained the secret of teaching. If one can represent it in clay, one understands it. If one can’t, one really doesn’t understand what it is. So clay and labels work only if the term or things are truly understood. And working them out in clay brings about an understanding of them. In the phrase "how do I represent it in clay" is contained the secret of the teaching. If one can represent it in clay one understands it. If one can’t, one really doesn’t understand what it is. So clay and labels work only if the term or things are truly understood. And working them out in clay brings about an understanding of them. CTWIT
A well-done clay demo, which actually does demonstrate, will produce a marvelous change in the student. And he will retain the data. A well done demonstration, which actually does demonstrate, will produce a marvellous change in a student. And he will retain the data. DEMOS
Sketching    
Sketching is also part of demonstration and part of working things out.    
Someone sitting at his office desk trying to work something out doesn’t have any clay to hand to work it out with, but he could work it out with a little demo kit action or a paper and pencil, draw graphs of it, and so forth. This is a necessary part of getting a grip on something.    
There is a rule which goes IF YOU CANNOT DEMONSTRATE SOMETHING IN TWO DIMENSIONS YOU HAVE IT WRONG. It’s an arbitrary rule, but it’s very workable. An arbitrary rule which works out in practice is if you cannot demonstrate something in two dimensions you have it wrong. DEMO
This rule is used in engineering and architecture. If it can’t be worked out simply and clearly in two dimensions, there is something wrong and it couldn’t be built. This rule is used in engineering and architecture. If it can’t be worked out simply and clearly in 2 dimensions, there is something wrong and it couldn’t be built. DEMO
It works in other ways too.    
An obvious example is a navigator who, instead of trying to work it all out in his head with some foggy concept of where he is, simply graphs the sailing plan and progress on a chart. An obvious example is a navigator who, instead of trying to work it all out in his head with some foggy concept of where he is, simply graphs the sailing plan and progress on a chart. DEMO
This is all part of demonstration and part of working something out.    
Chapter six: Word clearing "METHOD 3 WORD CLEARING," HCO Bulletin of 7 October 1981 ("M3")

"METHOD 7," HCO Bulletin of 21 June 1972 Issue III ("M7")

"METHOD 9 WORD CLEARING THE RIGHT WAY," HCO Bulletin of 30 January 1973RD
("M9")

Technical Dictionary of Dianetics and Scientology ("TD")

 
Methods of Word Clearing    
There are several methods for locating and handling misunderstood words. Three of the most commonly used methods are fully described in this chapter.    
Method 3 Word Clearing WORD CLEARING METHOD 3, 1. verbal in classroom. The student says he does not understand something. The supervisor has him look earlier in the text for a misunderstood word, gets the student to look it up, use it verbally several times in sentences of his own composition, then read the text that contained it. Then come forward in the text to the area of the subject he did not understand. TD
A student must know how to keep himself tearing along successfully in his studies. He should be able to handle anything that slows or interferes with his progress. He applies the study technology to assist himself.    
A student who uses study technology will look up each word he comes to that he doesn’t understand and will never leave a word behind him that he doesn’t know the meaning of. A student who knows his study tech will look up each word he comes across that he doesn’t understand. If he comes to something he doesn’t grasp he will look over it carefully for any misunderstood words and clear these up. M3
If he runs into trouble, the student himself, the Supervisor, or his study partner uses a method of Word Clearing called Method 3 Word Clearing to handle anything that slowed or interfered with his progress. Method 3 is routinely used by the supervisor. It is done by twins on
each other as needed. And of course the student should use it himself when
ever he runs into any trouble.
M3
Waiting to get groggy or to "dope off" as the only detection of misunderstoods and handling it is waiting too long. As soon as the student slows down or he isn’t quite so "bright" as he was fifteen minutes ago is the time to look for the misunderstood word. It’s not a misunderstood phrase or idea or concept but a misunderstood WORD. This always occurs before the subject itself is not understood.    
1. The student is not flying along and is not so "bright" as he was or he may exhibit just plain lack of enthusiasm or be taking too long on the course or be yawning or disinterested or doodling or daydreaming, etc. The student is not as bright, or feels dull or disinterested, or is
doping off, has bogged down or is going slower; or he just can’t understand
something or disagrees with it and has done all the usual actions such as
clearing the words in it, but it still won’t resolve.
M3
2. The student must then look earlier in the text for a misunderstood word. There is one always; there are no exceptions. It may be that the misunderstood word is two pages or more back, but it is always earlier in the text than where the student is now. The student is asked to look earlier in the text for the misunderstood
word. There is one always. There are no exceptions. It may be that the
misunderstood word is two pages or more back but it is always earlier in the
text from where the student is now.
M3
3. The word is found. The student recognizes it in looking back for it. Or, if the student can’t find it, one can take words from the text that could be the misunderstood word and ask, "What does _____ mean?" to see if the student gives the correct definition. The words found. The student brightens up. M3
4. The student looks up the word found in a dictionary and clears it per the steps of clearing a misunderstood word. He uses it verbally several times in sentences of his own composition until he has obviously demonstrated he understands the word by the composition of his sentences. The misunderstood word is looked up in a good dictionary and cleared per
HCOB 23 Mar 78RA Word Clearing Series 59RA Clearing Words.
M3
5. The student now reads the text that contained the misunderstood word. If he is not now "bright," eager to get on with it, feeling happier, etc., then there is another misunderstood word earlier in the text. This is found by repeating steps 2-5. The student reads the text that contains the word that was misunderstood. If the student is not now bright then there is a misunderstood word even earlier in the text that must be found. M3
6. When the student is bright, feeling happier, etc., he comes forward, studying the text from where the misunderstood word was to the area of the subject he did not understand (where step 1 began). When the student is bright and cheerful he is told to come forward, restudying the text, to the area of the subject he did not understand. M3
The student will now be enthusiastic with his study of the subject, and that is the end result of Method 3 Word Clearing.    
(The result won’t be achieved if a misunderstood word was missed or if there is an earlier misunderstood word in the text. If so, repeat steps 2-5.) The difficulty he was having should now resolve. If the difficulty does not resolve then there are still one or more misunderstood words earlier which must be found. M3
If the student is now enthusiastic, have him continue with studying.    
Good Word Clearing is a system of backtracking. You have to look earlier than the point where the student became dull or confused and you’ll find that there’s a word that he doesn’t understand somewhere before the trouble started. If he doesn’t brighten up when the word is found and cleared, there will be a misunderstood word even before that one. Good word clearing is a system of backtracking. You have to look earlier than the point the student become dull or confused and you’ll find that there’s a word that he doesn’t understand somewhere before the trouble started. The student will brighten up the moment he spots the word, even before the word is cleared. And if he doesn’t brighten up there will be a misunderstood word even before that one. M3
This will be very clear to you if you understand that IF IT IS NOT RESOLVING, THE THING THE STUDENT IS APPARENTLY HAVING TROUBLE WITH IS NOT THE THING THE STUDENT IS HAVING TROUBLE WITH. Otherwise, it would resolve, wouldn’t it? If he knew what he didn’t understand, he could resolve it himself. So to talk to him about what he thinks he doesn’t understand just gets nowhere. The trouble is earlier. This will be very clear to you if you understand that if it is not resolving, the thing the student is apparently having trouble with is not the thing the student is having trouble with otherwise it would resolve, wouldn’t it? The trouble is earlier. If he knew what he didn’t understand he could resolve it himself. So to talk with him about what he thinks he doesn’t understand just gets nowhere. M3
The formula is to find out where the student wasn’t having any trouble and find out where the student is now having trouble and the misunderstood word will be in between. It will be at the tag end of where he wasn’t having trouble. The formula is to find out where the student wasn’t having any trouble and find out where the student is now having trouble and the misunderstood word will be in between. It will be at the tag end of where he wasn’t having trouble. M3
Method 3 Word Clearing is tremendously effective when done as described herein. Method 3 is tremendously effective when done as described herein. M3
So get a good reality on it and become expert in its use. To get a good reality on it and become expert in its use. Use it to Keep
Scientology Working.
M3
Method 9 Word Clearing    
     
Method 9 Word Clearing is a way of finding the words a person doesn’t understand in a book or other written material by having him read it aloud to the Word Clearer (person who is applying the Word Clearing technology to another). It is done on a turnabout basis (one student is the Word Clearer and word clears the other student, and then they switch around and the student who was just word cleared becomes the Word Clearer and word clears his partner). WORD CLEARING METHOD 9, the procedure is: (1) student or staff member reads the text out loud. He is not on the meter. (2) the word clearer has a copy of the text and reads along with the student silently. (3) if the student leaves out a word or stumbles or exhibits any physical or verbal manifestation while reading the text, the word clearer immediately asks for the misunderstood word or term and gets the meanings cleared with a dictionary and put into sentences until the word is understood and VGIs are present. TD
The student and Word Clearer sit across from each other at a table. The student and the word clearer sit across from each other at a table or desk. M9
Each has his own copy of the text to be word cleared. The Word Clearer must be able to see the student and the page in front of him at the same time. Each person has his own copy of the text to be word cleared. The word clearer must be able to see the student and the page in front of him at the same time. M9
A good, simple English dictionary and any other dictionaries the student may need are available. A good, simple English language dictionary, and any other dictionaries the student may need are available. M9
Any encyclopedias or texts that might be needed should also be on hand. Always have to hand, at least in the classroom, the most extensive and voluminous set of dictionaries anybody ever heard of on all the subjects ever heard of under the sun, plus any encyclopedias that you can round up. M9
The Word Clearer tells the student that if he reads anything he doesn’t fully understand he should tell the Word Clearer, or    
if he sees a word he doesn’t know the meaning of, he should stop and look the word up and clear it instead of going past it. … if he sees a word he doesn’t know the meaning of, he should stop and look the word up and clear it instead of going on past it. M9
The student reads the text aloud to the Word Clearer. The student reads the text aloud to the word clearer. M9
As the student reads, the Word Clearer follows the text, watches the student and listens to the student. While the student reads, the word clearer follows his own copy of the same text, watches the student and listens to him. M9
If the student errs or stumbles in any way in reading, or does anything wrong or does anything odd,

. . . or does anything except comfortably and easily read the text with understanding,

The word clearer must be very alert and see or hear any non-optimum reactions of the student while he is reading. M9
. . . the Word Clearer and student must locate the exact misunderstood word or symbol. It will usually he found before (and only occasionally at) the point the nonoptimum reaction occurred. The word clearer and student must now locate the exact misunderstood word or symbol. It will be found just before or sometimes at the point the non-optimum reaction occurred. M9
(The student may be able to spot his misunderstood word right away and tell the Word Clearer what it is.) The student may be able to spot his misunderstood word right away and tell the word clearer what it is. M9
Once the misunderstood is found it must be fully cleared in the dictionary. Once the misunderstood is found it must be fully cleared in the dictionary. M9
The student looks rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the text where the word was misunderstood. The first step is to look rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the context in which the word was misunderstood. M9
The student reads the definition aloud to the Word Clearer.    
When the student understands the definition itself, he tells the Word Clearer, in his own words, what the definition means.    
The student makes up sentences using the word correctly until he is very comfortable using the word. The sentences must show he knows how to use the word in the sense of the definition he’s just cleared. The student may need to make up ten sentences, or even more, before he really understands the word and how to use it. One reads the definition and uses it in sentences until one has a clear concept of that meaning of the word. This could require ten or more sentences. M9
He does this with each definition of the word. Then one clears each of the other definitions of that word M9
(He doesn’t clear specialized, obsolete or archaic definitions unless the word is being used that way in the text where it was misunderstood.) Don’t clear the technical or specialized definitions … or obsolete … or archaic … definitions unless the word is being used that way in the context where it was misunderstood. M9
The student clears the derivation of the word. The next thing to do is to clear the derivation M9
(The student clears any idioms in the same way that he cleared the definitions. … These idioms have to be cleared M9
… He then clears any usage notes or data on synonyms which is given and makes sure he understands them.) One must also clear any other information given about the word, such as notes on its usage, synonyms, etc. so as to have a full understanding of the word. M9
Then he rereads that sentence. The word clearer then asks the student to read once again the sentence M9
If it is not obvious to the student there was a non-optimum reaction and he just continues reading, the Word Clearer stops him and asks him if there is some word or symbol there that he didn’t understand. The word clearer must now ensure that the student understands the sentence and/or paragraph that contained the misunderstood. If the student does not originate this the word clearer must ask him to tell him what the sentence or paragraph means. M9
If he has difficulty finding the misunderstood word or symbol the Word Clearer helps him find it. he may have difficulty finding [his misunderstood word] and the word clearer will have to help him find it. M9
The Word Clearer helps him by getting him to look earlier and earlier in the text from the point where he reacted until the misunderstood word is found. The word clearer helps the student by getting him to look earlier and earlier in the text from the point where he reacted until the misunderstood word is found. M9
The Word Clearer can also choose words from the text the student has already read and check with him to see if he knows the definitions. The word clearer can also spot-check the student. Spot-checking means choosing words from the text the student has already read and checking with him to see if he knows the definitions of those words. M9
If the student is uncertain about any words or gives a wrong definition, then that word is taken up and cleared in the dictionary.

 
If the student is uncertain about any word or gives a wrong definition, then that word is taken up and cleared in the dictionary. M9
He first clears the definition that fits. Therefore he would rapidly go over the definitions to find the one that fits … M9
But maybe he doesn’t understand a word in the definition.

He then clears that word.

Once the misunderstood word in the definition is cleared, he goes back to the word he was clearing before. He rereads the definition he was on and finishes clearing the word.

If one encounters a misunderstood word or symbol in the definition of a word being cleared, one must clear it right away using this same procedure and then return to the definition one was clearing. M9
Then he rereads the sentence and continues. The word clearer then asks the student to read once again the sentence M9
And so it goes.    
Any discomfort, nonoptimum conduct, mishandling, unsmoothness, tension, robotness is checked into by the Word Clearer.

Is it the word he just said, or a word or symbol before it?

A non-optimum reaction by the student to what he is reading is the clue to the word clearer that the student has encountered a misunderstood word. … It will be found just before or sometimes at the point the non-optimum reaction occurred. M9
When a section of the text has been word cleared in this way and the student understands it,

. . . they switch around and the student who just completed being word cleared becomes the Word Clearer.

The student goes through the same section of text and then goes on to the next fresh passage.

They take it in turns like this, word clearing it section by section until they have both finished the whole text.

They take the materials being word cleared one paragraph or section at a time and M9 each other on it. This is done by a student first M9ing his twin on one section, and then getting M9ed on what he just word cleared his twin on, plus the next section. It then turns around again. The twin gets M9ed on what he just word cleared the other student on, and on the next section. …

The whole text would be covered in this way.

M9
During the Word Clearing session, the Word Clearer should keep a record (worksheet) of the words looked up and cleared and any other important information concerning the Word Clearing. The word clearer keeps worksheets during the word clearing session and writes down which words have been looked up and cleared and any other important information concerning the word clearing. M9
Method 7 Word Clearing    
Whenever one is working with children or foreign language persons or semiliterates, a method of Word Clearing called METHOD 7 or READING ALOUD is used. WORD CLEARING METHOD 7, whenever one is working with children or foreign-language persons or semi-literates Method 7 Reading Aloud is used. The procedure is have him read aloud. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him. (HCOB 21 Jun 72 III) Abbr. M7. M7
In this method the person is made to read aloud to find out what he is doing. In this method the person is made to read aloud to find out what he is doing. M7
It is a very simple method. It is a very simple method. It is done without a meter. M7
It is used on such persons before other Word Clearing methods in order to get the person untangled. It is used on such persons before other methods in order to get the person untangled. M7
If a person does not seem to be progressing by studying silently, one has him read aloud. If a person does not seem to be progressing by studying silently, one has him read aloud. M7
Another copy of the same text must also be followed by the Word Clearer as the person reads. Another copy of the same text must also be followed by the Word Clearer as the person reads. M7
Startling things can be observed. Startling things can be observed. M7
The person may omit the word "is" whenever it occurs. The person doesn’t read it. He may have some strange meaning for it like "Israel" (actual occurrence). The person may omit the word "is" whenever it occurs. The person doesn’t read it. He may have some strange meaning for it like "Israel" (actual occurrence). M7
He may omit "didn’t" each time it occurs and the reason may trace to not knowing what the apostrophe is (actual occurrence). He may omit "didn’t" each time it occurs and the reason traced to not knowing what the apostrophe is (actual occurrence). M7
He may call one word quite another word such as "stop" for "happen" or "green" for "mean." He may call one word quite another word such as "stop" for "happen" or "green" for "mean". M7
He may hesitate over certain words. He may hesitate over certain words. M7
The procedure is: The procedure is M7
1. Have him read aloud. 1. Have him read aloud. M7
2. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. 2. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. M7
3. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him. 3. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him. M7
4. Have him go on reading, noting the next omission, word change or hesitation or frown. 4. Have him go on reading, noting the next omission, word change or hesitation or frown. M7
5. Repeat steps 2 to 4. 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4. M7
By doing this a person can be brought up to literacy. By doing this a person can be brought up to literacy. M7
His next actions would be learning how to use a dictionary and look up words. His next actions would be learning how to use a dictionary and look up words. M7
Then a simple grammar text. Then a simple grammar. M7
A very backward student can be boosted up to literacy by this method. A very backward student can be boosted up to literacy by this method. M7
Chapter seven: Coaching and checkouts "THEORY CHECK-OUT DATA," HCO Policy Letter of 4 October 1964 ("TCCD")

"SCIENTOLOGY TRAINING TWIN CHECKOUTS," HCO Policy Letter of 26 August 1965
("STTC")

"HOW TO DO THEORY CHECKOUTS AND EXAMINATIONS," HCO Policy Letter of 4
March 1971 ("TCE")

 
Coaching    
Coaching is a vital part of study technology.    
It is used frequently in doing drills on specific actions. In coaching drills, two students work together, one acting as a trainer to help the other achieve the purpose of the drill. Once the first student has become competent on the action, he becomes the coach to help the other student through.    
Coaching can also be used in theory, when a student is having a hard time studying something.    
Coaching theory means getting a student to define all the words, give all the rules, demonstrate things in his materials with his hands or bits of things, and also may include doing clay demos. Coaching Theory means getting a student to define all the words, give all the rules, demonstrate things in the bulletin with his hands or bits of things, and also may include doing Clay Table Definitions of Scientology terms. STTC
Any student who is having any trouble or is slow or glib should team up with another student of comparable difficulties with whom he can do theory coaching. The usual Supervisor action would be to have any student who is having any trouble or is slow or glib team up with another student of comparable difficulties and have them turn about with each other with Theory Coaching, similar to Practical Coaching in drills. STTC
Checkouts    
A checkout is the action of verifying a student’s knowledge of what he has studied. A checkout is not a test of whether or not the student can memorize what he has read.    
It will never do a student any good at all to know some facts. The student is expected only to use facts. It will never do a student any good at all to know some facts. The student is expected only to use facts. STTC
Giving a checkout on the material a student has studied by seeing if it can be quoted or paraphrased proves exactly nothing. This will not guarantee that the student knows the data or can use or apply it nor even guarantees that the student is there. Neither the "bright" student nor the "dull" student (both suffering from the same malady) will benefit from such an examination. Giving a text assignment check by seeing if it can be quoted or paraphrased proves exactly nothing. This will not guarantee that the student knows the data or can use or apply it nor even guarantees that the student is there. Neither the "bright" student nor the "dull" student (both suffering from the same malady) will benefit from such an examination. STTC
So examining by seeing if somebody "knows" the text and can quote or paraphrase it is completely false and must not be done. So examining by seeing if somebody "knows" the text and can quote or paraphrase it is completely false and must not be done. STTC
Correct examination is done only by making the person being tested answer: Correct examination is done only by making the person being tested answer STTC
a. The meanings of the words (redefining the words used in his own words and demonstrating their use in his own made-up sentences), and (a) The meanings of the words (redefining the words used in his own words and demonstrating their use in his own made up sentences), and STTC
b. Demonstrating how the data is used. (b) Demonstrating how the data is used. STTC
"What is the first paragraph?" is about as dull as one can get. "What are the rules given about _____?" is a question one should never bother to ask. Neither of these tell the examiner whether he has the bright nonapplier u the dull student before him. Such questions just beg for the student’s criticism and course blows. "What is the first paragraph?" is about as dull as one can get. "What are the rules given about . . . . .?" a question I would never bother to ask. Neither of these tell the twin whether he has the bright non-applier or the dull student before him. Such questions just beg for natter and course blows. STTC
Example of How to Do a Checkout    
I would go over the first paragraph of any material I was examining a student on and pick out a few uncommon words. I’d ask the student to define each and demonstrate its use in a made-up sentence and flunk the first "well . . . er . . . let me see . . . and that would be the end of that checkout. I would go over the first paragraph of any material I was examining a student on and pick out some uncommon words. I’d ask the student to define each and demonstrate its use in a made up sentence and flunk the first "Well . . . er . . . let me see. . . ." and that would be the end of that checkout. I wouldn’t pick out only Scientologese. I’d pick out words that weren’t too ordinary such as "benefit" "permissive" "calculated" as well as "engram". STTC
Above all, I myself would be sure I knew what the words meant before I started to examine. Above all, I myself would be sure I knew what the words meant before I started to examine. STTC
When the student had the words, I’d demand the music. What tune do these words play? … when the student had the words, I’d demand the music. What tune do these words play? STTC
I’d say, "All right, what use is this text assignment to you?" Questions like, "Now this rule here about not letting people eat candy while dieting, how come there’d be such a rule?" If the student couldn’t imagine why, I’d send him back to the words just ahead of that rule to find the one he hadn’t grasped. I’d say "All right, what use is this text assignment to you?" Questions like, "Now this rule here about not letting pcs eat candy while being audited, how come there’d be such a rule?" And if the student couldn’t imagine why, I’d go back to the words just ahead of that rule and find the one he hadn’t grasped. STTC
But if the student weren’t up to the point of study where knowing why he used that rule was part of his materials, I wouldn’t ask. It is very important that a student not be examined above his or her level. But if the student wasn’t up to the point of study where knowing why he used the ARC triangle was not part of his materials, I wouldn’t ask. For all the data about not examining above level applies very severely to Theory Checkout as well as to Practical and general Instruction. STTC
How to Do Theory Checkouts HOW TO DO THEORY CHECKOUTS AND EXAMINATIONS TCE
Before any person gives another a checkout, he must himself have read or listened to the material. This will make it possible to consult the understanding and the ability to apply the material of the per son being checked out.    
The important points of a text are: The important points of a Bulletin, Tape or Policy Letter are: TCE
1. The specific rules, axioms, or maxims; 1. The specific rules, axioms, maxims or stable data; TCE
2. The doingness details, exactly how it is done; 2. The doingness details, exactly how is it done; and TCE
and    
3. The theory of why it is done. 3. The theory of why it is done. TCE
All else (except of course, that the student knows what the words mean) is unnecessary. All you have to demand is the above. All else is unnecessary. All you have to demand is the above. TCE
1. The rules, laws, theories, axioms and maxims must be known and the student must be able to show their meaning is also known to him or her.

 
(1) The rules, axioms, maxims or stable data must be known and the student must be able to show their meaning is also known to him or her. TCE
2. The doingness must be exactly known as to sequence and actions but not verbatim (in the same words as the text). (2) The doingness must be exactly known as to sequence and actions but not verbatim (in the same words as the text). TCE
3. The theory must be known as a line of reasoning, reasons why or related data and with accuracy, but not verbatim. (3) The theory must be known as a line of reasoning, reasons why or related data and with accuracy, but not verbatim. TCE
The date of the book, lecture, or manual is relatively unimportant, and other details of like nature should never be asked for. The date of the lecture or bulletin or letter is relatively unimportant and other details of like nature should never be asked for. TCE
If a student is ever going to apply the data, then above (1) must be down cold, (2) must be able to be experienced and (3) must be appreciated. If a student or Staff Member is ever going to apply the data, then above (1) must be down cold, (2) must be able to be experienced and (3) must be appreciated. TCE
Asking for anything else is to rebuff interest and give a feeling of failure to the person being examined. Asking for anything else is to rebuff interest and give a feeling of failure to the person being examined. TCE
An examiner or study partner should examine with exactness on (1), alertness on (2), and seeing if the student understands (3). An examiner or study partner should not go beyond these points, asking for what person was mentioned, who did the test, what is the copyright date, what are the first words, etc. An examiner or twin should examine with exactness on (1), alertness on (2) and seeing if the student understands (3). An examiner or twin should not go beyond these points, asking for what person was mentioned, who did the test, what is the copyright date, what are the first words, etc. TCE
Irrelevant examination questions only slow the student. Irrelevant examination questions only slow the student and extend the course. TCE
It might also be noted that checkouts on course materials must also ask for demonstrations. Use paper clips, rubber bands, etc. The examiner or study partner should ask questions that require an ability to apply. Give the student a situation and have him tell you how he would handle it. It might also be noted that checkouts on bulletins must also ask for demonstrations. Use paper clips, rubber bands, etc. The examiner or twin should ask questions that require an ability to apply. Give the student a situation and have him tell you how he would handle it. TCE
Be as tough as you please, but only on (1), (2) and (3) above. Be as tough as you please, but only on (1), (2) and (3) above. TCE
Chapter eight: Learning how to learn "Training: Duplication," lecture of 24 January 1962 ("TR-D")

"FALSE DATA STRIPPING," HCO Bulletin of 7 August 1979 ("FDS")

"Studying: Data assimilation," lecture of 9 July 1964 ("SDA")

 
The Learning Drill    
As has been covered earlier in this book, learning is not always the same as study. Some people can do a whole course and get good marks and not learn anything. A person might pass every exam, yet not have learned the data so that it can be applied.    
The following drill is used to improve the ability to study and increase the learning rate.    
NAME: The Learning Drill.    
POSITION: Student and coach sit facing each other across a table.    
PURPOSE: To develop judgment by understanding and duplication. The conclusion is that you can learn to have judgment, and the way you learn to have judgment is just those two steps: duplication of
data, and, pursuant to that, understanding. 
TR-D
TRAINING STRESS:    
1. The first step is duplication.    
The coach takes a sentence or phrase from Alice in Wonderland. The line used is unimportant. The coach reads it to the student. Coach merely tries to get student to repeat a line of sounds. You don’t need to call them words. It is not rote memory. It is duplication. The coach repeats the line each time the student flubs until the student has duplicated it exactly. Take any datum in Scientology, say it to him and have him repeat it.
This is the simplest of all these; just say it and have him repeat it, you
see, and say it and have him repeat it, …
TR-D
2. The second step is understanding.    
After the student has correctly duplicated what the coach read, the coach asks, "Give me an example of that." Student gives example or examples until both are satisfied. … and then say it and have him tell you what it is all about, you
know, by giving you an example of it. You say it, he gives you an example of
it.
TR-D
Coach then asks, "How do you feel about that?" and if okay, they continue to the next line. If student has any uncertainties with examples, the coach goes back to step 1 and starts the drill from beginning, using the same line.    
If the student still has trouble with examples, coach would ask, "Are there any misunderstoods on this line?" and any found are cleared up. A dictionary should be used.    
REMEDY: If the student continues to have trouble with examples, the coach should say, "Give me an example of how the datum isn’t that way," and student gives examples until both are satisfied; then, "Give me examples of how it is," until both are satisfied. Always end off with how it is.    
Results    
The student should feel good about the datum after duplication and understanding, and should start having realizations as he is further drilled.    
Eventually, using the two basic steps, the student will learn judgment.    
The drill should be coached on a gradient.    
It should be ended on a good success. The student should look good.    
The end result on each student is the ability to rapidly and accurately learn data.    
Data and Power of Choice    
There is another method of education which is quite fabulous. It can help a student to regain power of choice over data.    
Here’s an example.    
Part One    
Check before going on if the student can remember the first set of numbers you gave him.    
This would be continued until the student could easily recall and repeat a nonsignificant datum.    
Part Two    
This step is done using examples of nonsignificant data which are totally incorrect. When the student has regained his power of choice, go on to the third step, that of teaching the actual datum you want to teach him.    
Part Three    
This particular method of instruction takes a nonsignificant datum and teaches somebody that the repetition of the datum does not bring about chaos, does not hurt him any, that he can do it.    
Then you teach him he could remember it.    
You would do this with a nonsignificant datum: one, two, three; a hundred, thirty-two, sixteen. Just numbers. You get a repetition of this, and then he can remember it.    
Now, you do something else with him. He’s so used to being taught by life with duress, and not with power of choice, that you take a totally incorrect datum. There would be no argument about the incorrectness of the datum. And you let him throw it out. You give him another datum, incorrect, and let him throw it out. If he has any difficulty with the nonsignificant items, you would keep repeating these until he could do it smoothly.    
Now you’ve shown him that he can remember something or reject it, and that is the definition of power of choice.    
Then you give him a datum which is the datum you wish to teach him. And you give him power of choice over that datum. But the pitch is to give it a little bit exaggerated in force. "The coach should always agree with the student." It’s not true.    
Let him quarrel with it. Let him chew it around. Let him add it up and look over his own experience.    
Make him give you an objective example. That is a vital part of this particular operation — a vital part of it.    
Have him set up a dummy situation. If you’re teaching him that it is wrong to run off the road with a car, you have him show you where the road is on the table and move the saltshaker off the road.    
You give him an objective example. He has to then translate your statement into action. He must do this, and he must continue to do this until he can do it, so that it ceases to be a bunch of words.    
False Data FALSE DATA STRIPPING FDS
When a person is not functioning well on his job or in life, at the bottom of his difficulties will often be found unknown basic definitions and laws or false definitions, false data and false laws, resulting in the inability to think with the words and rules of that activity and an inability to perform the simplest required functions. The person will remain unfamiliar with the fundamentals of his activity, at times appearing idiotic, because of these not-defined and falsely defined words. When a person is not functioning well on his post, on his job or in life, at the bottom of his difficulties will often be found unknown basic definitions and laws or false definitions, false data and false laws, resulting in an inability to think with the words and rules of that activity and an inability to perform the simplest required functions The person will remain unfamiliar with the fundamentals of his activity, at times appearing idiotic, because of these not-defined and falsely defined words. FDS
A politician is told by an adviser, "It doesn’t matter how much money the government spends. It is good for the society." The politician uses this "rule" and, the next thing you know, inflation is driving everybody to starvation and the government to bankruptcy. The politician, knowing he was told this on the very best authority, does not spot it as false data, but continues to use it right up to the point where the angry mobs stand him in front of a firing squad’ and shoot him down. And the pity of it is that the politician never once suspected that there was anything false about the data, even though he couldn’t work with it. A politician is told by an advisor, "It doesn’t matter how much money the government spends. It is good for the society." The politician uses this "rule" and the next thing you know, inflation is driving everybody to starvation and the government to bankruptcy. The politician, knowing he was told this on the very best authority, does not spot it as false data, but continues to use it right up to the point where the angry mobs stand him up in front of a firing squad and shoot him down. And the pity of it is that the politician never once suspected that there was anything false about the data, even though he couldn’t work with it. FDS
There is no field in all the society where false data is not rampant. "Experts," "advisers," "friends," "families," seldom go and look at the basic texts on subjects, even when these are known to exist, but indulge in all manner of interpretations and even outright lies to seem wise or expert. The cost, in terms of lost production and damaged equipment, is enormous. You will see it in all sectors of society. People cannot think with the fundamentals of their work. They goof. They ruin things. They have to redo what they have already done. There is no field in all the society where false data is not rampant. "Experts," "Advisors," "Friends," "Families" seldom go and look at the basic texts on subjects, even when these are known to exist, but indulge in all manner of interpretations and even outright lies to seem wise or expert. The cost, in terms of lost production and damaged equipment is enormous. You will see it in all sectors of society. People cannot think with the fundamentals of their work. They goof. They ruin things. They have to redo what they have already done. FDS
False data on a subject can come from any number of sources. In the process of day-to-day living, people encounter and often accept without inspection all sorts of ideas which may seem to make sense but don’t. Advertising, newspapers, TV and other media are packed with such material. Even mothers have a hand in it, such as "children should be seen and not heard." False data on a subject can come from any number of sources. In the process of day-to-day living people encounter and often accept without inspection all sorts of ideas which may seem to make sense but don’t. Advertising, newspapers, TV and other media are packed with such material. The most profound false data can come out of texts such as Stanislavsky (a Russian actor and director); and even mothers have a hand in it, such as "children should be seen and not heard." FDS
Where a subject, such as art, contains innumerable authorities and voluminous opinions you may find that any and all textbooks under that heading reek with false data. The validity of texts is an important factor in study. Where a subject, such as art, contains innumerable authorities and voluminous opinions you may find that any and all textbooks under that heading reek with false data. Those who have studied study tech will recall that the validity of texts is an important factor in study. FDS
Therefore it is important that any Supervisor or teacher seeking to strip off false data must utilize basic workable texts. These are most often found to have been written by the original discoverer of the subject and when in doubt, avoid texts which are interpretations of somebody else’s work. In short, choose only textual material which is closest to the basic facts of the subject and avoid those which embroider upon them. Therefore it is important that any supervisor or teacher seeking to use False Data Stripping must utilize basic workable texts. These are most often found to have been written by the original discoverer of the subject and when in doubt avoid texts which are interpretations of somebody else’s work. In short, choose only textual material which is closest to the basic facts of the subject and avoid those which embroider upon them. FDS
If one is to use at all effectively what one is learning, he must first sort out the true facts regarding it from the conflicting bits and pieces of information or opinion he has acquired. This eliminates the false data and lets him get on with it. If he is to use it at all effectively he must first sort out the true facts regarding it from the conflicting bits and pieces of information or opinion he has acquired. This eliminates the false data and lets him get on with it. FDS
As a person goes through life, he receives data (facts, information) in many ways — from friends, family, school, television, etc.    
Not all data is as important as all other data. Some data is more useful than other data and some data is of no value at all.    
When one looks at a "sea" of facts, every drop in the sea might look like every other drop. However, since some of the drops of water might be of vast importance, one would need to look for the key data — those drops of water in the middle of the ocean that are the key drops of water.    
People have sometimes listened to so many useless opinions in life that they never learn the key data. They then don’t have the key data they need to resolve their problems.    
Life has certain laws and these are the most senior data of all. The data you get from this book is very basic data which provides you with tools with which you can handle life.    
Having these tools in your hands can help you become more causative over life. If you learn to think with these tools and apply them, you will have the senior data which can resolve problems you’re faced with. Life will all of a sudden become more livable.    
[Missing pages]    
The difference between the "bright" student and the "dull" one, the student who is very, very fast and the one who is very, very slow, is really only the difference between the careful student and the careless student. Actually, I don’t think there are bright students and dull students. I don’t think this at all. I don’t think so, because I’ve never seen any real coordination between knowledge of the subject and the brightness and dullness of a student. But there is a careful student and a careless student. SDA
The careful student applies the technology of study. He studies with an intention to learn something. He handles any of the barriers to study which appear as he is working with his materials.    
If he is reading down a paragraph and suddenly realizes that he doesn’t have a clue what he is reading about, he goes back and finds out where he got tangled up. He’s reading down this paragraph and all of a sudden he wakes up to the fact he hasn’t the foggiest clue what the devil he’s talking about — what he’s reading about so he goes back and finds out where he got tangled up. SDA
Just before that there is a word he didn’t understand. If he is a careful student, he doesn’t continue until he finds out what that word is and what it means.    
That is a careful student, and his brightness on the subject is dependent upon the degree he applies this technology. It isn’t dependent on any native talent or anything else. It is his command of the subject of study that makes the difference. Now, there’s a careful student. And his brightness on the subject is dependent upon the degree he does this. It isn’t dependent on any native talent or anything else. It isn’t even dependent on his buttons. SDA
[L. Ron Hubbard "bios"]    
BASIC STUDY MANUAL SCIENTOLOGY SCRIPTURES  
Chapter one: Why study? "Study and Intention," lecture of 18 August 1966 ("SAI")

"Studying: Introduction," lecture given on 18 June 1964 ("SI")

 
Why Study?    
In his dictionary of 1828, Noah Webster said that "to study" means "to apply the mind to; to read and examine for the purpose of learning and understanding."    
Why does one study? For what purpose are you studying? SAI
Until you clarify that, you cannot make an intelligent activity of it. Now, until you clarify that, you in actual fact cannot make an intelligent activity of it. SAI
Some students go through a course and wind up at the other end of it unable to do anything with it. In actual fact, this is because they studied the course just so they could pass the examination; they did not study the course in order to apply the data in it. Why you have a fellow go through a course and wind up at the other end of the course unable to audit, it’s because he in actual fact studied for the examination. He did not study to apply it to people. SAI
This is why such people fail in practice after they graduate. This is why you get failures in practice after certification, and is the whole reason. SAI
Instead of thinking, "Is this going to be on the exam?" one would do much better to ask himself, "How can I apply this material?" or "How can I really use this?" The next time you’re studying something, why, take a look at it and you’ll find yourself up — "And the Examiner is going to ask this," and so forth, … ask yourself this question instead … How can I apply this, if I knew this datum, out in life?" and so forth, "Of what use would it be to me?" SAI
With that in mind, a person would get much more out of what he studied, and would be able to put what he studied to actual use.    
The First Obstacle to Learning    
The first obstacle to learning is the idea that one "knows it all already."    
A student who thinks he knows all there is to know about a subject will not be able to learn anything in it.    
Such a student doesn’t even know what he doesn’t know.    
If you asked him if he was willing to learn about it, he would try to avoid your question. He isn’t willing to learn about it because he has the false idea that he knows all about it already.    
As an example, I once took a correspondence course in photography, thinking that I might learn a few more tricks in the subject. I had been a rather successful photographer, having sold many of my photographs to magazines, and some of my work had even been published in geography books. However, once I started the course, I only got as far as the third lesson when I found myself bogging on it and putting it aside. And at one time or another, why, I’ve sold pictures and so
on. It’s just one of these hobbyist things that you fool with. I’d probably
classify as an advanced amateur; one time I classified as a pro, when I was
in college. Used to make a lot of money, National Geographic and so forth. I
think there’s some geography books around that still carry pictures of mine
in them. …

So I took up this correspondence course in photography – the New York Institute of Photography, one of the best – and rolled up my sleeves, and found out I’d never gotten deeper than about the third lesson.

SI
Later, I took another look at this correspondence course I was taking and realized that this same course contained the real basics and fundamentals of the subject of photography that I didn’t even know existed in it. I saw that I didn’t know even the first fundamental of why photographs were taken in the first place!    
It dawned on me that I had been very arrogant and that I really didn’t know all there was to know on the subject of photography, and that there was something there to learn. … it dawned on me … that I had been very arrogant and that I really didn’t know all there was to know … on the subject of photography; … there was something there to learn. SI
Once I could see this, I buckled down and started to study the course for real. I then finished the next eight lessons in two weeks of part-time study and gained a workable understanding of the subject for the first time. All the knowledge and understanding I had learned from that course would have been denied me if I had not overcome the first obstacle to learning. … I buckled down and started to study.

Now, the speed of advance is very interesting: three books in three and a half years; eight books in two weeks.

SI
On the subject of learning itself, the first datum to learn and the first obstacle to overcome is: "Why are you studying it if you know all about it to begin with?" But on the subject of learning itself, the first datum to teach is this little — and the first barrier to crack is this datum about "Why are you studying it if you know all about it to begin with?" SI
If a student can decide that he does not already know everything about a subject and can say to himself, "Here is something to study, let’s study it," he can overcome this obstacle and be able to learn it.    
This is a very, very important datum for any student to learn. If he knows this and applies it, the gateway to knowledge is wide open to him.    
Chapter Two: The Barriers to study "BARRIERS TO STUDY," HCO Bulletin of 25 June 1971R ("BTS")

Technical Dictionary of Dianetics
and Scientology ("TD)

 
The First Barrier: Absence of Mass    
The mass of a subject refers to the parts of that subject which are composed of matter and energy and which exist in the material universe. For example, if one were studying how to operate tractors, the mass would be an actual tractor, as opposed to the theory of tractors or data on the development of tractors, etc.    
Trying to educate someone without the mass that he is going to be involved with can make it very difficult for him. Education in the absence of the mass in which the technology will be involved is very hard on the student. BTS
Imagine trying to learn how to run a tractor with no tractor to look at!    
Such an absence of mass can actually make a student feel squashed. It actually makes him feel squashed. BTS
It can make him feel bent, Makes him feel bent, BTS
sort of spinny, sort of spinny, BTS
sort of dead, sort of dead, BTS
bored, bored, BTS
and exasperated. exasperated. BTS
If he is studying the doingness of something in which the mass is absent this will be the result. If he is studying the doingness of something in which the mass is absent this will be the result. BTS
If one is studying about tractors, the printed page and spoken word are no substitute for having an actual tractor there. … the printed page and the spoken word are not a substitute for a tractor if he’s studying about tractors. BTS
Photographs or motion pictures are helpful because they represent a promise or hope of the mass of a tractor. Photographs help and motion pictures would do pretty good as they are a sort of promise or hope of the mass but … BTS
It is important to understand that educating a person in a mass that he does not have and which is not available can produce some nonoptimum physical reactions. You have to understand this data in its purity — and that is that educating a person in a mass that they don’t have and which isn’t available produces physiological reactions. BTS
If you were trying to teach a fellow all about tractors but you did not show him any tractors, he would wind up with a face that felt squashed, with headaches and with his stomach feeling funny. He would feel dizzy from time to time and often his eyes would hurt. You’re trying to teach this fellow all about tractors and you’re not giving him any tractors — well he’s going to wind up with a face that feels squashed, with headaches and with his stomach feeling funny. He’s going to feel dizzy from time to time and very often his eyes are going to hurt. BTS
This datum has great application. It’s a physiological datum that has to do with processing and the field of the mind. BTS
For example, if a child were studying and felt sick and it was traced back to a lack of mass, the positive remedy would be to supply the mass — the object itself or a reasonable substitute — and the child’s sickness could rapidly clear up. If a child felt sick in the field of study and it were traced back to this one, the positive remedy would be to supply the mass — the object or a reasonable substitute — and it would clear it up. BTS
This barrier to study — the studying of something without its mass ever being around — produces very distinctly recognizable reactions. This one of studying the something without its mass ever being around produces the most distinctly recognizable reactions. BTS
The Second Barrier: Too Steep a Gradient    
A gradient is a gradual approach to something taken step by step, level by level, each step or level being, of itself, easily attainable — so that finally, quite complicated and difficult activities can be achieved with relative ease. The term gradient also applies to each of the steps taken in such an approach. GRADIENT, 1 . a gradual approach to something, taken step by step, level by level, each step or level being, of itself, easily surmountable — so that, finally, quite complicated and difficult activities or high states of being can be achieved with relative ease.. TD
When one hits too steep a gradient in studying a subject, You’ve hit too steep a gradient. BTS
a sort of confusion or reelingness results. It is a sort of a confusion or a reelingness that goes with this one. BTS
This is the second barrier to study.    
Say you were to find a person who was studying about engines and he was confused and sort of reeling.    
You would know that there had been too much of a jump from studying one type of engine to studying a more complicated type of engine. The person did not really understand something about the first type of engine but jumped to studying the next type of engine and this was too steep a gradient for him. There was too much of a jump because he didn’t understand what he was doing and he jumped to the next thing and that was too steep BTS
The person assigns all of his difficulties to the new type of engine. he will assign all of his difficulties to this new thing. BTS
But the difficulty really lies at the tail end of his study of the first engine, the engine he felt he understood. It’s really at the tail end of what he understood BTS
The remedy for too steep a gradient is to cut back the gradient. Find out when the person was not confused about what he was studying and then find out what new action he undertook to do. The remedy for this one of too steep a gradient is cutting back. Find out when he was not confused on the gradient, then what new action he undertook to do. BTS
Find out what he felt he understood well just before he got all confused. Find what action he understood well. Just before he was all confused what did he understand well BTS
You will find that there is something in this area — the area where he felt he understood it — which he did not really understand. and then we find out that he didn’t understand it well. BTS
When this is cleared up, the student will be able to progress again.    
This barrier of too steep a gradient is more evident and most applicable in activities in which there is doingness involved, but it also applies in subjects that are mainly concerned with thought. Gradients are more pronounced in the field of doingness but they still hang over into the field of understanding. BTS
When a person is found to be terribly confused on the second action he was supposed to do, it is safe to assume that he never really understood the first action. We find he was terribly confused on the second action he was supposed to do. We must assume then that he never really got out of the first one. BTS
The Third — and Most lmportant Barrier: The Misunderstood Word    
The third and most important barrier to study is the misunderstood word. A misunderstood word is a word which is not understood or wrongly understood.    
An entirely different set of physical reactions can occur when one reads past words he does not understand. Reading on past a word that was not understood gives one a distinctly blank feeling or a washed-out feeling. An entirely different set of physiological reactions brought about through — a bypassed definition. A bypassed definition gives one a distinctly blank feeling or a washed-out feeling. BTS
A 'not-there' feeling A not-there feeling BTS
and a sort of nervous hysteria can follow that. and a sort of nervous hysteria will follow in the back of that. BTS
The confusion or inability to grasp or learn comes AFTER a word that the person did not have defined and understood.    
A misunderstood definition or a not-comprehended definition or an undefined word can even cause a person to give up studying a subject and leave a course or class. Leaving in this way is called a ‘blow.’ The manifestation of ‘blow’ stems from this 3rd aspect of study which is the misunderstood definition or the not comprehended definition, the undefined word. BTS
A person does not necessarily blow because of the other barriers to study — lack of mass or too steep a gradient. These simply produce physical phenomena. The person doesn’t necessarily blow on these other two — they are not pronouncedly blow phenomena. They are simply physiological phenomena. BTS
But the misunderstood word can cause a student to blow. That’s the one that produces the blow. BTS
The misunderstood word is much more important than the other two. The misunderstood word establishes aptitude and lack of aptitude and this is what psychologists have been trying to test for years without recognizing what it was. This one of the misunderstood definition is so much more important. It’s the make-up of human relations, the mind and subjects. It establishes aptitude and lack of aptitude and it’s what psychologists have been trying to test for years without recognizing what it was. BTS
It is the misunderstood word. The misunderstood word. BTS
This is all that many study difficulties go back to and it produces such a vast panorama of mental effects that it itself is the prime factor involved with stupidity and many other unwanted conditions. That’s all it goes back to and that produces such a vast panorama of mental effects that it itself is the prime factor involved with stupidity and the prime factor involved with many other things. BTS
There is some word in the field of art that the person who is unable in that field did not define or understand, and that is followed by an inability to act in the field of art. There is some word in the field of art that the person who is inept didn’t define or understand and that is followed by an inability to act in the field of the arts. BTS
If a person didn't have misunderstoods, his talent might or might not be present, but his doingness would be present. If a person didn't have misunderstoods his talent might or might not be present but his doingness would be present. BTS
We can't say that Joe would paint as well as Bill, but we can say that the inability of Joe to paint compared with the ability of Joe to do the motions of painting is dependent exclusively and only upon definitions — exclusively and only upon definitions. We can't say that Joe would paint as well as Bill if both were unaberrated in the field of art, but we can say that the inability of Joe to paint compared with the ability of Joe to do the motions of painting is dependent exclusively and only upon definitions — exclusively and only upon definitions. BTS
This is very important because it tells one what happens to doingness and it also tells one that the restoration of doingness depends only upon the restoration of understanding of the misunderstood word. That's very important because it tells you what happens to doingness and that the restoration of doingness depends only upon the restoration of understanding on the misunderstood word — misunderstood definition. BTS
This is very simple technology. It has a technology which is a very simple technology. BTS
It is a sweepingly fantastic discovery in the field of education and has great application. It IS a sweepingly fantastic discovery in the field of education and don’t neglect it. BTS
This discovery of the importance of the misunderstood word actually opens the gate to education. And although this one has been given last, it is the most important of the barriers to study. Well that opens the gate to Education. Although I’ve given this one of the misunderstood definition last it is the most important one. BTS
Chapter three: Understanding words "CLEARING WORDS," HCO Bulletin of 23 March 1978RA ("CW")

"SCIENTOLOGY
TRAINING – TWIN CHECKOUTS," HCO Policy Letter of 26 August 1965 ("STTC")

"SIMPLE WORDS," HCO Bulletin of 4 September 1971 Issue III ("SW")

 
Handling misunderstood words    
A misunderstood word will remain misunderstood until one "clears" the meaning of the word. Once the word is fully understood, it is said to be "cleared." The procedures used to locate and clear up words the student has misunderstood in his studies is called Word Clearing. There are several different methods of Word Clearing which will be covered later in this book. The first thing to learn is the exact procedure to be used in clearing any word or symbol one comes across in reading or studying that he does not understand.    
How to clear a word    
1. Have a dictionary to hand while reading so that you can clear any misunderstood word or symbol you come across. A simple but good dictionary can be found that does not itself contain large words within the definitions of the words which have to be cleared.    
2. When you come across a word or symbol that you do not understand,    
the first thing to do is get a dictionary and look rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the context in which the word was being used. Read that definition and make up sentences using the word that way until you have a clear concept of that meaning of the word. This could require ten or more sentences. The first step is to look rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the context in which the word was misunderstood. One reads the definition and uses it in sentences until one has a clear concept of that meaning of the word. This could require ten or more sentences. CW
3. Then clear each of the other definitions of that word, using each one in sentences until you clearly understand each definition. Then one clears each of the other definitions of that word, using each in sentences until one has a conceptual understanding of each definition. CW
When a word has several different definitions, you cannot limit your understanding of the word to one definition only and call the word "understood." You must be able to understand the word when, at a later date, it is used in a different way. When a word has several different definitions, one cannot limit his understanding of the word to one definition only and call the word "understood." One must be able to understand the word when, at a later date, it is used in a different way. CW
Don’t, however, clear the technical or specialized definitions (math, biology, etc.) or obsolete (no longer used) or archaic (ancient and no longer in general use) definitions unless the word is being used that way in the context where it was misunderstood. Don’t clear the technical or specialized definitions (math, biology, etc.) or obsolete (no longer used) or archaic (ancient and no longer in general use) definitions unless the word is being used that way in the context where it was misunderstood. CW
4. The next thing to do is to clear the derivation, which is the explanation of where the word came from originally. This will help you gain a basic understanding of the word. The next thing to do is to clear the derivation — which is the explanation of where the word came from originally. This will help gain a basic understanding of the word. CW
5. Most dictionaries give the idioms of a word. An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example, all in is an English idiom meaning "very tired." Most dictionaries give the idioms of a word. An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example, "give in" is an English idiom meaning "yield." CW
(In a sentence this might be used, "Joe did not want to go to the party because he was feeling all in.")    
Quite a few words in English are used in idioms and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. If there are idioms for the word that you are clearing, they are cleared as well. Quite a few words in English have idiomatic uses and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. These idioms have to be cleared. CW
6. Clear any other information given about the word, such as notes on its usage, synonyms, etc., so you have a full understanding of the word. One must also clear any other information given about the word, such as notes on its usage, synonyms, etc. so as to have a full understanding of the word. CW
7. If you encounter a misunderstood word or symbol in the definition of a word being cleared, you must clear it right away using this same procedure and then return to the definition you were clearing. (Dictionary symbols and abbreviations are usually given in the front of the dictionary.) If one encounters a misunderstood word or symbol in the definition of a word being cleared, one must clear it right away using this same procedure and then return to the definition one was clearing. (Dictionary symbols and abbreviations are usually given in the front of the dictionary.) CW
However,    
if you find yourself spending a lot of time clearing words within definitions of words, you should get a simpler dictionary. A good dictionary will enable you to clear a word without having to look up a lot of other ones in the process. If you find yourself spending a lot of time clearing words within definitions of words, you should get a simpler dictionary. A good dictionary will enable you to clear a word without having to look up a lot of other ones in the process. CW
Example of Clearing a Word EXAMPLE CW
Let’s say that you are reading the sentence, "He used to clean chimneys for a living," and you’re not sure what chimneys means. You are reading the sentence "He used to clean chimneys for a living" and you’re not sure what "chimneys" means. CW
You find it in the dictionary and look through the definitions for the one that applies. It says "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire." You find it in the dictionary and look through the definitions for the one that applies. It says "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire." CW
You’re not sure what flue means so you look that up. It says "A channel or passage for smoke, air or gases." That fits and makes sense, so you use it in some sentences until you have a clear concept of it. You’re not sure what "flue" means so you look that up: it says "A channel or passage for smoke, air or gasses of combustion." That fits and makes sense so you use it in some sentences until you have a clear concept of it. CW
Flue in this dictionary has other definitions, each of which you would clear and use in sentences. "Flue" in this dictionary has other definitions, each of which you would clear and use in sentences. CW
Next, read the derivation the dictionary gives for the word flue. Look up the derivation of the word "flue." CW
Now go back to chimney. The definition, "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire," now makes sense, so YOU use it in sentences until you have a concept of it. Now go back to "chimney." The definition "A flue for the smoke or gases from a fire," now makes sense so you use it in sentences until you have a concept of it. CW
You then clear the other definitions. If the dictionary you are using has specialized or obsolete definitions, you would skip them as they aren’t in common usage. You then clear the other definitions. One dictionary has an obsolete definition and a geological definition. You would skip both of these as they aren’t in common usage. CW
Now clear up the derivation of the word. You find that chimney originally came from the Greek word kaminos, which means "furnace." Now clear up the derivation of the word. One finds in the derivation that it originally came from the Greek word "kaminos," which means "furnace." CW
If the word had any notes about its use, synonyms or idioms, they would all be cleared too. If the word had any synonym studies, usage notes or idioms, they would all be cleared too. CW
That would be the end of clearing chimney. That would be the end of clearing "chimney." CW
The above is the way a word should be cleared. The above is the way a word should be cleared. CW
When words are understood, communication can take place, and with communication any given subject can be understood. When words are understood, communication can take place and with communication any given subject can be understood. CW
Simple Words SIMPLE WORDS SW
You might suppose at once that it is the BIG words or the technical words which are most misunderstood. You might suppose at once that it is the BIG words or the technical words which are most misunderstood. SW
This is NOT the case. This is not the case. SW
On actual test, it was English simple words and NOT technical words which prevented understanding. On actual test, it was English simple words and not Dianetics and Scientology words which prevented understanding. SW
Words like "a," "the," "exist," "such" and other "everybody knows" words show up with great frequency as being misunderstood. Words like "a", "the", "exist", "such" and other "everybody knows" words show up with great frequency when doing a Method 2 Word Clearing. They read. SW
It takes a BIG dictionary to define these simple words fully. This is another oddity. The small dictionaries also suppose "everybody knows." It takes a BIG dictionary to define these simple words fully. This is another oddity. The small dictionaries also suppose everybody knows. SW
It is almost incredible to see that a university graduate has gone through years and years of study of complex subjects and yet does not know what "or" or "by" or "an" means. It has to be seen to be believed. Yet when cleaned up, his whole education turns from a solid mass of question marks to a clean useful view. It is almost incredible to see that a university graduate has gone through years and years of study of complex subjects and yet does not know what "or" or "by" or "an" means. It has to be seen to be believed. Yet when cleaned up his whole education turns from a solid mass of question marks to a clean useful view. SW
A test of schoolchildren in Johannesburg once showed that intelligence DECREASED with each new year of school! A test of schoolchildren in Johannesburg once showed that Intelligence decreased with each new year of school! SW
The answer to the puzzle was simply that each year they added a few dozen more crushing misunderstood words onto an already confused vocabulary that no one ever got them to look up. The answer to the puzzle was simply that each year they added a few dozen more crushing misunderstood words onto an already confused vocabulary that no one ever got them to look up. SW
Stupidity is the effect of misunderstood words. Stupidity is the effect of misunderstood words. SW
In those areas which give man the most trouble, you will find the most alteration of fact, the most confused and conflicting ideas and of course the greatest number of misunderstood words. Take "economics" for example. In those areas which give Man the most trouble you will find the most alteration of fact, the most confused and conflicting ideas and of course the greatest number of misunderstood words. Take "economics" for example. SW
The subject of psychology began its texts by saying they did not know what the word means. So the subject itself never arrived. Professor Wundt of Leipzig University in 1879 perverted the term. It really means just a study (ology) of the soul (psyche). But Wundt, working under the eye of Bismarck the greatest of German military fascists, at the height of German war ambitions, had to deny man had a soul. So there went the whole subject! Men were thereafter animals (it is all right to kill animals) and man had no soul, so the word psychology could no longer be defined. The subject of psychology began its texts by saying they did not know what the word means. So the subject itself never arrived. Professor Wundt of Leipzig University in 1879 perverted the term. It really means just "a study (ology) of the soul (psyche)". But Wundt, working under the eye of Bismarck, the greatest of German military fascists, at the height of German war ambitions, had to deny Man had a soul. So there went the whole subject! Men were thereafter animals (it is all right to kill animals) and Man had no soul, so the word psychology could no longer be defined. SW
THE EARLIEST MISUNDERSTOOD WORD IN A SUBJECT IS A KEY TO LATER MISUNDERSTOOD WORDS IN THAT SUBJECT. The earliest misunderstood word in a subject is a key to later misunderstood words in that subject. SW
In studying a foreign language it is often found that the grammar words of one’s own language that tell about the grammar in the foreign language are basic to not being able to learn the foreign language. In studying a foreign language it is often found that the grammar words of one’s own language that tell about the grammar in the foreign language are basic to not being able to learn the foreign language. SW
Not knowing the meanings of these simple words can block one’s understanding of a subject.    
One has to look them up when they aren’t understood, no matter how "simple" they may seem. Have him look it up no matter how simple the word is. SW
The Two Phenomena of Misunderstood Words    
First Phenomenon FIRST PHENOMENON STTC
When a student misses understanding a word, the section right after that word is a blank in his memory. When a student misses understanding a word, the section right after that word is a blank in his memory. STTC
You can always trace back to the word just before the blank, get it understood and find miraculously that the former blank area is not now blank in the material he is studying. The above is pure magic. You can always trace back to the word just before the blank, get it understood and find miraculously that the former blank area is not now blank in the text. The above is pure magic. STTC
Second Phenomenon SECOND PHENOMENON STTC
As covered earlier, when a word is not grasped, the student then goes into a noncomprehension (blankness) of things immediately after. When a word is not grasped, the student then goes into a non-comprehension (blankness) of things immediately after. STTC
This is followed by the student’s solution for the blank condition which is to individuate from it — separate self from it. This is followed by the student’s solution for the blank condition which is to individuate from it — separate self from it. STTC
Now that the student is individuated from the area, he then commits harmful acts against the more general area. Now being something else than the blank area, the student commits overts against the more general area. STTC
This is followed by an effort to restrain himself from committing more harmful acts and efforts to find ways he has been wronged. These overts, of course, are followed by restraining himself from committing overts. STTC
This is followed by various mental and physical conditions and by various complaints, faultfinding and look-what-you-did-to-me. This is followed by various mental and physical conditions and by various complaints, fault-finding and look-what-you-did-to-me. STTC
But most educational systems, frowning on blows as they do, cause the student to really withdraw himself from whatever he was studying and set up in its place mental machinery which can receive and give back sentences and phrases. But the system of education, frowning on blows as it does, causes the student to really withdraw self from the study subject (whatever he was studying) and set up in its place a circuit which can receive and give back sentences and phrases. STTC
We now have "the quick student who somehow never applies what he learns." We now have "the quick student who somehow never applies what he learns". STTC
This is known as a "glib" student.    
The specific phenomenon then is that a student can study some words and give them back and yet be no participant to the action. The student gets A+ on exams but can’t apply the data. The specific phenomena then is that a student can study some words and give them back and yet be no participant to the action. The student gets A+ on exams but can’t apply the data. STTC
The very bright student who can’t yet use the data isn’t there at all. He has long since ceased to confront the subject matter or the subject. The "very bright" student who yet can’t use the data isn’t there at all. He has long since ceased to confront the subject matter or the subject. STTC
The thoroughly dull student is just stuck in the noncomprehend blankness following some misunderstood word. The thoroughly dull student is just stuck in the non-comprehend blankness following some misunderstood word. STTC
The cure for either of these conditions of "bright noncomprehension" or "dull" is to find the missing word. The cure for either of these conditions of "bright non-comprehension" or "dull" is to find the missing word. STTC
Chapter four: Dictionaries "DICTIONARIES," HCO Bulletin of 13 February 1981 ("D")

"CLEARING
WORDS," HCO Bulletin of 23 March 1978RA ("CW")

"DINKY DICTIONARIES," HCO Bulletin of 19 June 1972 ("DD")

 
How to Use a Dictionary    
Diction comes from the Latin word meaning a word or to say; -ary means a collection of or a thing connected with.    
A dictionary tells a person how to say a word, what it means, how to spell it and how to use it. Dictionaries usually will tell you where a word comes from.    
A dictionary is a word book.    
Definitions in dictionaries are not always complete and in some cases are not totally correct. Remember that dictionaries are written by people who themselves might have misunderstoods. So do not treat them as religious texts which must be believed. They are mostly correct but they are just tools.    
The Alphabet    
Knowledge of the alphabet is the key to finding words quickly. To use a dictionary rapidly one has to be able to recite the alphabet rapidly and know the relations of letters in the alphabet one to the other instantly. Otherwise, one can get lost and it will take a long time to look up words. One literally has to know the alphabet backwards and forwards.    
Words are arranged in alphabetical order in all dictionaries. A dictionary has a section for each letter of the alphabet. The first letter of the word one is looking up tells one which section of the dictionary to look in. Within any section, words are further arranged alphabetically by their second letters, then their third letters and so on. For instance, the word cat would be found after the word castle and before the word catch.    
Guide Words    
At the top of each page of the dictionary, there are words printed in black heavy type. They are called guide words. Guide words show the first and the last words printed on that page or in that column.    
The page of the dictionary one wants can be found by looking at the guide words on each page. Guide words help one find the word being looked for faster.    
Pronunciation    
Pronunciation means the way something is said. A dictionary tells one how to pronounce a word. The pronunciation of a word is given in the dictionary right after the word itself and is usually in parentheses.    
Pronunciation is shown by:    
a. How the word is divided into syllables (a syllable is a word or a small part of a word which can be pronounced with a single, uninterrupted sounding of the voice).    
For example, the word elephant contains three syllables:    
el e phant    
b. How the word, if it has two or more syllables, is accented (the emphasizing of one syllable of a word more than another).    
el e phant    
The accent mark tells one that the first syllable of the word is the one that is said with emphasis when pronouncing it.    
c. How the individual letters in a word sound through use of a pronunciation key.    
el ə fənt    
Dictionaries use letters and special marks to show how a word sounds. Generally, there are pronunciation keys at the bottom of each page or every other page which list out the most important letters and marks.    
There is also a complete listing near the front which gives the use of every letter or mark used in that dictionary to show how to pronounce a word. By looking at the letters and/or marks in parentheses and checking the pronunciation key at the bottom of the page (or near the front of the dictionary), one learns how the word is pronounced. For instance, to learn how the first "e" of elephant is pronounced, one looks at the key and sees that it is pronounced in the same way as the "e" in the words met and rest. Pronunciation keys differ a bit from dictionary to dictionary but they are all used as described here.    
Parts of Speech    
Following the pronunciation, the dictionary gives an abbreviation which designates the word’s part of speech. The parts of speech are the different things words do, such as name a person, place or thing (noun), show action or state of being (verb), modify or describe another word (adjective or adverb), etc. This helps you to understand how that word is used in speech and writing.    
When the plural form of a word is made differently than by adding -s or -es to the singular, the dictionary also includes the plural form of the word, directly after the part of speech.    
For example, the entry for mouse in most dictionaries would look similar to this:    
mouse (mows) n. (pl. mice)    
Definitions    
Next comes the definition of the word. If it has more than one definition, most dictionaries number them.    
Often dictionaries give examples showing the use of the word. But in clearing a word, it is not enough for the person simply to read these examples. He has to make up several of his own before he really knows the word.    
Dictionaries also often give specialized definitions when the word has a special meaning in such subjects as law, sports, science, music and so on. They often give slang (words or phrases that are not considered to be "standard" in the language) definitions for words.    
Idioms    
An idiom is a phrase or expression that has a meaning different from what the words suggest in their usual meaning. For example, to catch one’s eye is an idiom which means to get one’s attention. An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example, "give in" is an English idiom meaning "yield." CW
Most dictionaries include the idioms of a word after the definitions. Quite a few words in English have idiomatic uses and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. CW
Derivation    
A word’s derivation (a statement of the origin of a word) is put in brackets. The derivation can be very important to one’s full understanding of the word. Words get altered through the ages. By seeing the derivation one can find out what the word originally meant. The word’s derivation is usually found at the beginning or the end of the definitions in the dictionary.    
In the derivation certain signs and abbreviations are used.    
The sign < means derived from.    
The sign + means and.    
The word or words it comes from are written in italics. Usually abbreviations are used to show the language the word comes from. For example, OE would mean Old English, which denotes the English spoken up to approximately the twelfth century. These abbreviations are defined in the dictionary. Sometimes at the end of the derivation there is a word written in capital letters. This means that further data on the origin of the word can be found under the derivation of the word in capitals.    
Dictionary Tips    
How to Break Up a Word    
Occasionally, one cannot find a specific word in the dictionary, but by separating a word into its component parts one can look up each part and gain its meaning. Take, for example, the word anti-tax. This word is not defined in most dictionaries, but one can still determine its meaning. One looks up the first part, anti-, and finds that it means opposed to. One then looks up the second part of the word, tax, and finds that it means money regularly collected from citizens by their rulers. When one combines the two parts, one gets the definition of antitax which means opposed to collecting of money from citizens by their rulers.    
Dictionaries sometimes contain lists of such words which are not defined but which can be broken down into their component parts and the meaning determined.    
Technical Words    
Words of a special technology require a dictionary composed of terms for that field, e.g., a photographic dictionary or a nautical dictionary.    
To clear a foreign word, get a dictionary of that language. There are two kinds of foreign language dictionaries. One is a dictionary entirely in the foreign language. The other is half in the language the person speaks and half in the foreign language. For instance, in an English/Swedish dictionary, half of the dictionary is English with Swedish words next to it, and the other half is Swedish with its English counterpart next to it. One would use the all- foreign dictionary only when the person being word cleared knew that language fluently.    
Dictionaries contain a lot of information. This chapter covers the basics of how to use one. The format of individual dictionaries varies one to the next but the above fundamentals apply to them all. Dictionaries contain sections in the front which explain how they are used. If one encounters a word, symbol or abbreviation in the entry of a word that he does not understand he can always turn to this introductory section for help.    
Recommended Dictionaries    
Dictionaries are vital and important tools in studying or learning any subject. However, current dictionaries vary in accuracy and usefulness and many of these modern dictionaries are virtually useless and can actually confuse a student due to their false and omitted definitions and grammatical errors. So the dictionary that a student chooses to use is important and can actually make a difference in his success as a student. Dictionaries are vital and important tools in studying or learning any subject. However, current dictionaries vary in accuracy and usefulness and many of these modern dictionaries are virtually useless and can actually confuse a person due to their false and omitted definitions and grammatical and other errors. So the dictionary that a student chooses to use is important and can actually make a difference in his success as a student. D
As dictionaries are such an important factor in the learning and application of any subject, a list of some dictionaries that have been found to be the best of those currently available is included here. As dictionaries are such an important factor in the learning and application of Scientology (or any subject for that matter) I thought I had better recommend some dictionaries that have been found to be the best of those currently available. D
Webster New World Dictionary for Young Readers: Webster’s New World Dictionary for Young Readers: D
This is a very simple American dictionary. It is available in most bookstores and is published by New World Dictionaries/Simon & Schuster. This is a very simple American dictionary. It is published by William Collins. D
It is a hardbound volume and does not contain derivations. When using this dictionary, a student must be sure to clear the derivations in a larger dictionary. The definitions in this dictionary are quite good. It is a hardbound volume and does not contain derivations. When using this dictionary a student must be sure to clear the derivations in a larger dictionary. The definitions in this dictionary are quite good. D
Oxford American Dictionary: Oxford American Dictionary: D
This is a very good American dictionary, simpler than the college dictionaries yet more advanced than the beginning dictionary listed above. It does not list derivations of the words. It is quite an excellent dictionary and very popular with students who want to use an intermediate dictionary. This is a very good American dictionary, simpler than the college dictionaries yet more advanced than the beginning dictionary listed above. It does not list derivations of the words. It is quite an excellent dictionary and very popular with students who want to use an intermediate dictionary. D
It is published in paperback by Avon Books and in hardback by Oxford University Press. It is published in paperback by Avon Books, a division of the Hearst Corporation, 959 Eighth Ave., New York, New York, 10019, and in hardback by Oxford University Press, New York. D
Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, Student Edition: The Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language College Edition: D
This is an intermediate-level American dictionary which includes derivations. It is published by New World Dictionaries/Simon & Schuster and is available in most bookstores.    
The Random House College Dictionary: The Random House College Dictionary Revised Edition: D
This is a college dictionary and somewhat of a higher gradient than the dictionaries listed above. This is a one-volume American dictionary published in the US by Random House, Inc., and in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited. This is a college dictionary and somewhat of a higher gradient than the dictionaries listed above. This is a one volume American dictionary published in the US by Random House Inc., New York and in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto. D
This Random House dictionary contains a large number of slang definitions and idioms and also gives good derivations. This Random House dictionary contains a large number of slang definitions and idioms and also gives good derivations. D
The Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, College Edition: The Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language College Edition: D
This is an American college dictionary published by New World Dictionaries/Simon & Schuster. It is a one-volume dictionary and gives most of the slang definitions and idioms. It also has good derivations. This is an American college dictionary published by Simon and Schuster of New York. It is a one volume dictionary and gives most of the slang definitions and idioms. It also has good derivations. D
The Concise Oxford Dictionary: The Concise Oxford Dictionary: D
This is a very concise English dictionary but is not a simple or beginner’s dictionary. It is a small, one-volume dictionary. It uses a lot of abbreviations which may take some getting used to, but once the abbreviations are mastered students find this dictionary as easy to use as any other similarly advanced dictionary. It is less complicated in its definitions than the usual college dictionary and has the added benefit that the definitions given are well stated—in other words, it does not give the same definition reworded into several different definitions, the way some dictionaries do. This is a very concise English dictionary, but is not a simple or beginner’s dictionary. It is a small one volume dictionary. It uses a lot of abbreviations which may take some getting used to, but once the abbreviations are mastered students find this dictionary as easy to use as any other similarly advanced dictionary. It is less complicated in its definitions than the usual college dictionary and has the added benefit that the definitions given are well stated—in other words it does not give the same definition reworded into several different definitions, the way some dictionaries do. D
This dictionary is printed in Great Britain and the United States by the Oxford University Press. This dictionary is printed in Great Britain and the United States by the Oxford University Press. D
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary: The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary: D
This is a two-volume English dictionary and is a shorter version of The Oxford English Dictionary. It is quite up-to-date and is an ideal dictionary for fairly literate’6 students. Even if not used regularly, it makes a very good reference dictionary. The definitions given in the Oxford dictionaries are usually more accurate and give a better idea of the meaning of the word than any other dictionary. This is a two volume English dictionary and is a shorter version of The Oxford English Dictionary. It is quite up-to-date and is an ideal dictionary for fairly literate students. Even if not used regularly it makes a very good reference dictionary. The definitions given in the Oxford dictionaries are usually more accurate and give a better idea of the meaning of the word than any other dictionary. D
This Oxford dictionary is also printed by the Oxford University Press. This Oxford dictionary is also printed by the Oxford University Press. D
The Oxford English Dictionary: The Oxford English Dictionary: D
This is by far the largest English dictionary and is actually the principal dictionary of the English language. It consists of twenty volumes. (There is a Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary in which the exact text of The Oxford English Dictionary is duplicated in very small print which is read through a magnifying glass. Reduced in this manner the whole thing fits into two volumes.) This is by far the largest English dictionary and is the principal dictionary of the English language. It consists of 12 volumes and several supplementary volumes. (There is a Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary which the exact text of The Oxford English Dictionary is duplicated in very small print which is read through a magnifying glass. Reduced in this manner the whole thing fits into two volumes.) D
For many students this dictionary may be too comprehensive to use on a regular basis. (For some students huge dictionaries can be confusing as the words they use in their definitions are often too big or too rare and make one chase through twenty new words to get the meaning of the original.) For many students this dictionary may be too comprehensive to use on a regular basis. (For some students huge dictionaries can be confusing as the words they use in their definitions are often too big or too rare and make one chase through 20 new words to get the meaning of the original.) D
Although many students will not use this as their only dictionary, it is a must for every classroom and will be found useful in clearing certain words, verifying data from other dictionaries, etc. It Is a valuable reference dictionary and is sometimes the only dictionary that correctly defines a particular word. Although many students will not use this as their only dictionary, it is a must for every course room and will be found useful in clearing certain words, verifying data from other dictionaries, etc. It is a valuable reference dictionary and is sometimes the only dictionary that correctly defines a particular word. D
These Oxfords are also printed by the Oxford University Press. If your local bookstore does not stock them, they will be able to order them for you. These Oxfords are also printed by the Oxford University Press. If your local bookstore does not stock them they will be able to order them for you. D
From the dictionaries recommended here, a student should be able to find one that suits him. Whatever dictionary one chooses, it should be the correct gradient for him. For instance, you wouldn’t give a foreign language student, who barely knows English, the big Oxford English Dictionary to use in his studies! From the dictionaries recommended here a student should be able to find one that suits him. Whatever dictionary one chooses, it should be the correct gradient for him. For instance, you wouldn’t give a foreign language student, who barely knows English, the big Oxford to use in his studies! D
Dinky Dictionaries DINKY DICTIONARIES D
"Dinky dictionaries" are the kind you can fit in your pocket. They are usually paperback and sold at magazine counters in drugstores and grocery stores. "Dinky dictionaries" are the kind you can fit in your pocket. They are usually paperback and sold at magazine counters in drug stores and grocery stores. D
In learning the meaning of words, small dictionaries are very often a greater liability than they are a help. In learning the meaning of words small dictionaries are very often a greater liability than they are a help. DD
The meanings they give are often circular: Like "CAT: An Animal." "ANIMAL: A Cat." They do not give enough meaning to escape the circle. The meanings they give are often circular: Like "CAT: An Animal." "ANIMAL: A Cat." They do not give enough meaning to escape the circle. DD
The meanings given are often inadequate to get a real concept of the word. The meanings given are often inadequate to get a real concept of the word. DD
The words are too few and even common words are often missing. The words are too few and even common words are often missing. DD
Little pocketbook dictionaries may have their uses for traveling and reading newspapers, but they do get people in trouble. People have been seen to find a word in them and then look around in total confusion. For the dinky dictionary did not give the full meaning or the second meaning they really needed. Little pocket book dictionaries may have their uses for traveling and reading newspapers, but they do get people in trouble. I have seen people find a word in them and then look around in total confusion. For the dinky dictionary did not give the full meaning or the second meaning they really needed. DD
So the dinky dictionary may fit in your pocket but not in your mind. "Dinky dictionaries" are the kind you can fit in your pocket. D
Don’t use a dinky dictionary. Don’t use a dinky dictionary. D
Dictionaries and a Person’s Own Language DICTIONARIES AND A PERSON’S OWN LANGUAGE D
English dictionaries and American dictionaries differ in some of their definitions, as the Americans (USA) and English (Britain) define some words differently. English dictionaries and American dictionaries differ in some of their definitions, as the Americans and English define some words differently. D
An English dictionary will have different applications of words that are specifically English (British). These usages won’t necessarily be found in American dictionaries, as they are not part of the American English language. Different dictionaries have things in them which are unique to that language. An English dictionary will have different applications of words that are specifically British. These usages won’t necessarily be found in American dictionaries, as they are not part of the American version of the English language. Different dictionaries have things in them which are unique to that language. D
The Oxford English Dictionary is a good example of an English dictionary for the English. In addition to The Oxford English Dictionary, the Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary mentioned above is a good example of an English dictionary for the English. D
For the most part a student’s dictionary should correspond to his own language. This does not mean that an American shouldn’t use a British dictionary (or vice versa), but if he does, he should be aware of the above and check words in a dictionary of his own language as needed. For the most part a student’s dictionary should correspond to his own language. This does Dot mean that an American shouldn’t use an English dictionary (or vice versa), but if he does he should be aware of the above and check words in a dictionary of his own language as needed. D
False and Omitted Definitions FALSE AND OMITTED DEFINITIONS D
It has been found that some dictionaries leave out definitions and may even contain false definitions. If, when using a dictionary, a student comes across what he suspects to be a false definition, there is a handling that can be done. The first thing would be to ensure there are no misunderstoods in the definition in question and then he should consult another dictionary and check its definition for the word being cleared. This may require more than one dictionary. In this way any false definitions can be resolved. It has been found that some dictionaries leave out definitions and may even contain false definitions. If, when using a dictionary, a student comes across what he suspects to be a false definition there is a handling that can be done. The first thing would be to ensure there are no misunderstoods in the definition in question and then he should consult another dictionary and check its definition for the word being cleared. This may require more than one dictionary. In this way any false definitions can be resolved. D
Other dictionaries, encyclopedias and textbooks should be on hand for reference. Other dictionaries, encyclopedias and text books should be on hand for reference. D
If a student runs into an omitted definition or a suspected omitted definition, then other dictionaries or reference books should be consulted and the omitted definition found and cleared. If a student runs into an omitted definition, or a suspected omitted definition, then other dictionaries or reference books should be consulted and the omitted definition found and cleared. D
Derivations DERIVATIONS D
A derivation is a statement of the origin of a word. A derivation is a statement of the origin of a word. D
Words originated somewhere and meant something originally. Through the ages they have sometimes become altered in meaning. Words originated somewhere and meant something originally. Through ages they have sometimes become altered in meaning. D
Derivations are important in getting a full understanding of words. By understanding the origin of a word, one will have a far greater grasp of the concept of that word. Students find that they are greatly assisted in understanding a word fully and conceptually if they know the word’s derivation. Derivations are important in getting a full understanding of words. By understanding the origin of a word, one will have a far greater grasp of the concept of that word. Students find that they are greatly assisted in understanding a word fully and conceptually if they know the word’s derivation. D
A student must always clear the derivation of any word he looks up. A student must always clear the derivation of any word he looks up. D
It will commonly be found that a student does not know how to read the derivations of the words in most dictionaries. The most common error they make is not understanding that when there is a word in the derivation which is fully capitalized it means that that word appears elsewhere in the dictionary and probably contains more information about the derivation. (For example, the derivation of "thermometer" is given in one dictionary as THERMO + METER. Looking at the derivation of "thermo," it says it is from the Greek word therme, meaning heat. And the derivation of "meter" is given as coming from the French metre, which is from the Latin "metrum," which is itself from the Greek metron meaning measure.) By understanding and using these fully capitalized words, a student can get a full picture of a word’s derivation. It will commonly be found that a student does not know how to read the derivations of the words in most dictionaries. The most common error they make is not understanding that when there is a word in the derivation which is fully capitalized it means that that word appears elsewhere in the dictionary and probably contains more information about the derivation. (For example, the derivation of "thermometer" is given in one dictionary as "THERMO + METER". Looking at the derivation of "thermo" it says it is a combined form of the Greek thermos, meaning hot and therme, meaning heat. And the derivation of "meter" is given as coming from the French metre, which is from the Greek metron, meaning measure.) By understanding and using these fully capitalized words a student can get a full picture of a word’s derivation. D
If a student has trouble with derivations, it is most likely because of the above plus a misunderstood word or symbol in the derivation. These points can be cleared up quite easily where they are giving difficulty. If a student has trouble with derivations it is most likely because of the above plus a misunderstood word or symbol in the derivation. These points can be cleared up quite easily where they are giving difficulty. D
An excellent dictionary of derivations is The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, also printed by the Oxford University Press. An excellent dictionary of derivations is The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, also printed by the Oxford University Press. D
We have long known the importance of clearing words and it stands to reason that the dictionary one uses to do this would also be quite important. We have long known the importance of clearing words and it stands to reason that the dictionary one uses to do this would also be quite important. D
Chapter five: Demonstration "CLAY TABLE TRAINING," HCO Bulletin of 11 October 1967 ("CTT")

"CLAY
TABLE WORK IN TRAINING," HCO Bulletin of 10 December 1970R Issue I ("CTWIT")

"DEMONSTRATIONS," HCO Bulletin of 14 May 1980 ("DEMOS")

"DEMONSTRATION," HCO Bulletin of 15 April 1972R ("DEMO")

 
The Use of Demonstration    
The word demonstration means to show, or to show how something works. It comes from the Latin word demonstrate, to point out, show, prove.    
In studying, a student can do a "demonstration" or "demo" with a "demo kit" which consists of various small objects such as corks, caps, paper clips, pen tops, rubber bands, etc. The student demonstrates an idea or principle with his hands and the pieces of his demo kit. Demo Kit Demonstration – meaning the use of various small objects
such as corks, caps, paper clips, batteries, etc. These objects are kept in
a box or container called a „demo kit“. Each student should have one. The
pieces are used while studying, to represent the things in the material
being read.
DEMOS
If a student ran into something he couldn’t quite figure out, a demo kit would assist him to understand it. By making the different pieces of the demo kit represent the objects he is studying about, the student can move them around and see more clearly how they relate to each other, etc.    
By doing this the student is getting mass to go along with the ideas studied. A demo kit adds mass (physical matter), … to the significance and so
helps the student to study.
DEMOS
Clay Table Training    
Another form of demonstration is using clay figures to demonstrate a concept or principle. This is called clay table training. The purpose of clay table training is:    
1. To make the materials being studied real to the student by making him DEMONSTRATE them in clay. 1. To make the materials being studied real to the student by making him demonstrate them in clay. CTT
2. To give a proper balance of mass and significance. 2. To give a proper balance of mass and significance. CTT
3. To teach the student to apply. 3. To teach the student to apply. CTT
The student is given a word or situation to demonstrate. He does this in clay, labeling each part. The clay SHOWS the thing. It is not just a blob of clay with a label on it. Use small strips of paper for labels. The whole demonstration then has a label of what it is. The student is given a word or auditing action or situation to demonstrate. He then does this in clay, labeling each part. The clay SHOWS the thing. It is not just a blob of clay with a label on it. Use small strips of paper for labels. The whole demonstration then has a label of what it is. CTT
When the student has completed his clay demonstration it is then examined by the Supervisor or another student.    
Before the checkout, the student removes the overall label. The student must be Silent. The examiner must not ask any questions. On the checkout, the student removes the overall label. The student must be silent. The examiner must not ask any questions. CTT
The examiner just looks and figures out what it is. He then tells the student who then shows the examiner the label. If the examiner did not see what it was, it is a flunk. The examiner just looks and figures out what it is. He then tells the student who then shows the examiner the label. If the examiner did not see what it was, it is a flunk. CTT
Clay table must not be reduced to significance by the student explaining or answering questions. Nor is it reduced to significance by long-winded labels of individual parts. The clay shows it, not the label. Clay table must not be reduced to significance by the student explaining or answering questions. Nor is it reduced to significance by long-winded labels of individual parts. The clay shows it, not the label. CTT
The clay demonstrates it. The student must learn the difference between mass and significance. The clay demonstrates it. The student must learn the difference between mass and significance. CTT
For example, the student has to demonstrate a pencil. He makes a thin roll of clay which is surrounded by another layer of clay—the thin roll sticking slightly out of one end. On the other end goes a small cylinder6 of clay. The roll is labeled "lead." The outer layer is labeled "wood." The small cylinder is labeled "rubber." Then a label is made for the whole thing: "pencil." For example, the student has to demonstrate a pencil. He makes a thin roll of clay which is surrounded by another layer of clay – the thin roll sticking slightly out of one end. On the other end goes a small cylinder of clay. The roll is labeled "lead". The outer layer is labeled "wood". The small cylinder is labeled "rubber". Then a label is made for the whole thing: "pencil". CTT
On checkout, the student removes "pencil" before the examiner can see it. If the examiner can look at it and say "It’s a pencil," the student passes. On checkout, the student removes "pencil" before the examiner can see it. If the examiner can look at it and say, "It’s a pencil," the student passes. CTT
Clay Demo Size    
Clay demos must be large. A clay demo should be rather large. CTWIT
One of the purposes of clay table training is to make the materials being studied real to the student. If a student’s clay demo is small (less mass), the reality factor may not be sufficient. And long experience has shown that BIG clay demos are more successful in terms of increasing student understanding.    
ART is no object in clay table work. The forms are crude.    
Labeling Clay Demonstrations    
Each separate thing is labeled that is made on the clay table, no matter how crude the label is. Students usually do labels with scraps of paper written on with a ballpoint. Everything is labeled that is made on the clay table, no matter how crude the label is. Students usually do labels with scraps of paper written on with a ball-point. CTWIT
When cutting out a label, a point is put on one end, making it easy to stick the label into the clay.    
The procedure should go — student makes one object, labels it, makes another object, labels it, makes a third object and puts a label on it and so on in sequence. The procedure should go – student makes one object, labels it, makes another object, labels it, makes a third object and puts a label on it and so on in sequence. CTWIT
This comes from the data that optimum learning requires an equal balance of mass and significance and that too much of one without the other can make the student feel bad.    
If a student makes all the masses of his demonstration at once, without labeling them, he is sitting there with all those significances stacking up in his mind instead of putting down each one (in the form of a label) as he goes. If a student makes all the masses of his demonstration at once, without labeling them, he is sitting there with all those significances stacking up in his mind instead of putting down each one (in the form of a label) as he goes. CTWIT
The correct procedure is label each mass as you go along. The correct procedure is label each mass as you go along. CTWIT
Representing Thoughts in Clay    
Any thought can be represented by a piece of clay and a label. The mass parts are done by clay, the significance or thought parts by label. Any part of the mind can be represented by a piece of clay and a label. The mass parts are done by clay, the significance or thought parts by label. CTWIT
A thin-edged ring of clay with a large hole in it is usually used to signify a pure significance. A thin-edged ring of clay with a large hole in it is usually used to signify a pure significance. CTWIT
Directions of flows or travel are usually indicated with little arrows and this can become important. The arrow can be made out of clay or it can be made as another type of label. It is often lack of data in the demo about which way what is going or which way what is flowing that makes the demo unrecognizable.    
Working Things Out in Clay    
Anything can be demonstrated in clay if you work at it. And just by working on how to demonstrate it or make it into clay and labels brings about renewed understanding. Anything can be so demonstrated if you work at it. And just by working on how to demonstrate it or make it into clay and labels brings about renewed understanding. CTWIT
In the phrase "how do I represent it in clay" is contained the secret of teaching. If one can represent it in clay, one understands it. If one can’t, one really doesn’t understand what it is. So clay and labels work only if the term or things are truly understood. And working them out in clay brings about an understanding of them. In the phrase "how do I represent it in clay" is contained the secret of the teaching. If one can represent it in clay one understands it. If one can’t, one really doesn’t understand what it is. So clay and labels work only if the term or things are truly understood. And working them out in clay brings about an understanding of them. CTWIT
A well-done clay demo, which actually does demonstrate, will produce a marvelous change in the student. And he will retain the data. A well done demonstration, which actually does demonstrate, will produce a marvellous change in a student. And he will retain the data. DEMOS
Sketching    
Sketching is also part of demonstration and part of working things out.    
Someone sitting at his office desk trying to work something out doesn’t have any clay to hand to work it out with, but he could work it out with a little demo kit action or a paper and pencil, draw graphs of it, and so forth. This is a necessary part of getting a grip on something.    
There is a rule which goes IF YOU CANNOT DEMONSTRATE SOMETHING IN TWO DIMENSIONS YOU HAVE IT WRONG. It’s an arbitrary rule, but it’s very workable. An arbitrary rule which works out in practice is if you cannot demonstrate something in two dimensions you have it wrong. DEMO
This rule is used in engineering and architecture. If it can’t be worked out simply and clearly in two dimensions, there is something wrong and it couldn’t be built. This rule is used in engineering and architecture. If it can’t be worked out simply and clearly in 2 dimensions, there is something wrong and it couldn’t be built. DEMO
It works in other ways too.    
An obvious example is a navigator who, instead of trying to work it all out in his head with some foggy concept of where he is, simply graphs the sailing plan and progress on a chart. An obvious example is a navigator who, instead of trying to work it all out in his head with some foggy concept of where he is, simply graphs the sailing plan and progress on a chart. DEMO
This is all part of demonstration and part of working something out.    
Chapter six: Word clearing "METHOD 3 WORD CLEARING," HCO Bulletin of 7 October 1981 ("M3")

"METHOD 7," HCO Bulletin of 21 June 1972 Issue III ("M7")

"METHOD 9 WORD CLEARING THE RIGHT WAY," HCO Bulletin of 30 January 1973RD
("M9")

Technical Dictionary of Dianetics and Scientology ("TD")

 
Methods of Word Clearing    
There are several methods for locating and handling misunderstood words. Three of the most commonly used methods are fully described in this chapter.    
Method 3 Word Clearing WORD CLEARING METHOD 3, 1. verbal in classroom. The student says he does not understand something. The supervisor has him look earlier in the text for a misunderstood word, gets the student to look it up, use it verbally several times in sentences of his own composition, then read the text that contained it. Then come forward in the text to the area of the subject he did not understand. TD
A student must know how to keep himself tearing along successfully in his studies. He should be able to handle anything that slows or interferes with his progress. He applies the study technology to assist himself.    
A student who uses study technology will look up each word he comes to that he doesn’t understand and will never leave a word behind him that he doesn’t know the meaning of. A student who knows his study tech will look up each word he comes across that he doesn’t understand. If he comes to something he doesn’t grasp he will look over it carefully for any misunderstood words and clear these up. M3
If he runs into trouble, the student himself, the Supervisor, or his study partner uses a method of Word Clearing called Method 3 Word Clearing to handle anything that slowed or interfered with his progress. Method 3 is routinely used by the supervisor. It is done by twins on
each other as needed. And of course the student should use it himself when
ever he runs into any trouble.
M3
Waiting to get groggy or to "dope off" as the only detection of misunderstoods and handling it is waiting too long. As soon as the student slows down or he isn’t quite so "bright" as he was fifteen minutes ago is the time to look for the misunderstood word. It’s not a misunderstood phrase or idea or concept but a misunderstood WORD. This always occurs before the subject itself is not understood.    
1. The student is not flying along and is not so "bright" as he was or he may exhibit just plain lack of enthusiasm or be taking too long on the course or be yawning or disinterested or doodling or daydreaming, etc. The student is not as bright, or feels dull or disinterested, or is
doping off, has bogged down or is going slower; or he just can’t understand
something or disagrees with it and has done all the usual actions such as
clearing the words in it, but it still won’t resolve.
M3
2. The student must then look earlier in the text for a misunderstood word. There is one always; there are no exceptions. It may be that the misunderstood word is two pages or more back, but it is always earlier in the text than where the student is now. The student is asked to look earlier in the text for the misunderstood
word. There is one always. There are no exceptions. It may be that the
misunderstood word is two pages or more back but it is always earlier in the
text from where the student is now.
M3
3. The word is found. The student recognizes it in looking back for it. Or, if the student can’t find it, one can take words from the text that could be the misunderstood word and ask, "What does _____ mean?" to see if the student gives the correct definition. The words found. The student brightens up. M3
4. The student looks up the word found in a dictionary and clears it per the steps of clearing a misunderstood word. He uses it verbally several times in sentences of his own composition until he has obviously demonstrated he understands the word by the composition of his sentences. The misunderstood word is looked up in a good dictionary and cleared per
HCOB 23 Mar 78RA Word Clearing Series 59RA Clearing Words.
M3
5. The student now reads the text that contained the misunderstood word. If he is not now "bright," eager to get on with it, feeling happier, etc., then there is another misunderstood word earlier in the text. This is found by repeating steps 2-5. The student reads the text that contains the word that was misunderstood. If the student is not now bright then there is a misunderstood word even earlier in the text that must be found. M3
6. When the student is bright, feeling happier, etc., he comes forward, studying the text from where the misunderstood word was to the area of the subject he did not understand (where step 1 began). When the student is bright and cheerful he is told to come forward, restudying the text, to the area of the subject he did not understand. M3
The student will now be enthusiastic with his study of the subject, and that is the end result of Method 3 Word Clearing.    
(The result won’t be achieved if a misunderstood word was missed or if there is an earlier misunderstood word in the text. If so, repeat steps 2-5.) The difficulty he was having should now resolve. If the difficulty does not resolve then there are still one or more misunderstood words earlier which must be found. M3
If the student is now enthusiastic, have him continue with studying.    
Good Word Clearing is a system of backtracking. You have to look earlier than the point where the student became dull or confused and you’ll find that there’s a word that he doesn’t understand somewhere before the trouble started. If he doesn’t brighten up when the word is found and cleared, there will be a misunderstood word even before that one. Good word clearing is a system of backtracking. You have to look earlier than the point the student become dull or confused and you’ll find that there’s a word that he doesn’t understand somewhere before the trouble started. The student will brighten up the moment he spots the word, even before the word is cleared. And if he doesn’t brighten up there will be a misunderstood word even before that one. M3
This will be very clear to you if you understand that IF IT IS NOT RESOLVING, THE THING THE STUDENT IS APPARENTLY HAVING TROUBLE WITH IS NOT THE THING THE STUDENT IS HAVING TROUBLE WITH. Otherwise, it would resolve, wouldn’t it? If he knew what he didn’t understand, he could resolve it himself. So to talk to him about what he thinks he doesn’t understand just gets nowhere. The trouble is earlier. This will be very clear to you if you understand that if it is not resolving, the thing the student is apparently having trouble with is not the thing the student is having trouble with otherwise it would resolve, wouldn’t it? The trouble is earlier. If he knew what he didn’t understand he could resolve it himself. So to talk with him about what he thinks he doesn’t understand just gets nowhere. M3
The formula is to find out where the student wasn’t having any trouble and find out where the student is now having trouble and the misunderstood word will be in between. It will be at the tag end of where he wasn’t having trouble. The formula is to find out where the student wasn’t having any trouble and find out where the student is now having trouble and the misunderstood word will be in between. It will be at the tag end of where he wasn’t having trouble. M3
Method 3 Word Clearing is tremendously effective when done as described herein. Method 3 is tremendously effective when done as described herein. M3
So get a good reality on it and become expert in its use. To get a good reality on it and become expert in its use. Use it to Keep
Scientology Working.
M3
Method 9 Word Clearing    
     
Method 9 Word Clearing is a way of finding the words a person doesn’t understand in a book or other written material by having him read it aloud to the Word Clearer (person who is applying the Word Clearing technology to another). It is done on a turnabout basis (one student is the Word Clearer and word clears the other student, and then they switch around and the student who was just word cleared becomes the Word Clearer and word clears his partner). WORD CLEARING METHOD 9, the procedure is: (1) student or staff member reads the text out loud. He is not on the meter. (2) the word clearer has a copy of the text and reads along with the student silently. (3) if the student leaves out a word or stumbles or exhibits any physical or verbal manifestation while reading the text, the word clearer immediately asks for the misunderstood word or term and gets the meanings cleared with a dictionary and put into sentences until the word is understood and VGIs are present. TD
The student and Word Clearer sit across from each other at a table. The student and the word clearer sit across from each other at a table or desk. M9
Each has his own copy of the text to be word cleared. The Word Clearer must be able to see the student and the page in front of him at the same time. Each person has his own copy of the text to be word cleared. The word clearer must be able to see the student and the page in front of him at the same time. M9
A good, simple English dictionary and any other dictionaries the student may need are available. A good, simple English language dictionary, and any other dictionaries the student may need are available. M9
Any encyclopedias or texts that might be needed should also be on hand. Always have to hand, at least in the classroom, the most extensive and voluminous set of dictionaries anybody ever heard of on all the subjects ever heard of under the sun, plus any encyclopedias that you can round up. M9
The Word Clearer tells the student that if he reads anything he doesn’t fully understand he should tell the Word Clearer, or    
if he sees a word he doesn’t know the meaning of, he should stop and look the word up and clear it instead of going past it. … if he sees a word he doesn’t know the meaning of, he should stop and look the word up and clear it instead of going on past it. M9
The student reads the text aloud to the Word Clearer. The student reads the text aloud to the word clearer. M9
As the student reads, the Word Clearer follows the text, watches the student and listens to the student. While the student reads, the word clearer follows his own copy of the same text, watches the student and listens to him. M9
If the student errs or stumbles in any way in reading, or does anything wrong or does anything odd,

. . . or does anything except comfortably and easily read the text with understanding,

The word clearer must be very alert and see or hear any non-optimum reactions of the student while he is reading. M9
. . . the Word Clearer and student must locate the exact misunderstood word or symbol. It will usually he found before (and only occasionally at) the point the nonoptimum reaction occurred. The word clearer and student must now locate the exact misunderstood word or symbol. It will be found just before or sometimes at the point the non-optimum reaction occurred. M9
(The student may be able to spot his misunderstood word right away and tell the Word Clearer what it is.) The student may be able to spot his misunderstood word right away and tell the word clearer what it is. M9
Once the misunderstood is found it must be fully cleared in the dictionary. Once the misunderstood is found it must be fully cleared in the dictionary. M9
The student looks rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the text where the word was misunderstood. The first step is to look rapidly over the definitions to find the one which applies to the context in which the word was misunderstood. M9
The student reads the definition aloud to the Word Clearer.    
When the student understands the definition itself, he tells the Word Clearer, in his own words, what the definition means.    
The student makes up sentences using the word correctly until he is very comfortable using the word. The sentences must show he knows how to use the word in the sense of the definition he’s just cleared. The student may need to make up ten sentences, or even more, before he really understands the word and how to use it. One reads the definition and uses it in sentences until one has a clear concept of that meaning of the word. This could require ten or more sentences. M9
He does this with each definition of the word. Then one clears each of the other definitions of that word M9
(He doesn’t clear specialized, obsolete or archaic definitions unless the word is being used that way in the text where it was misunderstood.) Don’t clear the technical or specialized definitions … or obsolete … or archaic … definitions unless the word is being used that way in the context where it was misunderstood. M9
The student clears the derivation of the word. The next thing to do is to clear the derivation M9
(The student clears any idioms in the same way that he cleared the definitions. … These idioms have to be cleared M9
… He then clears any usage notes or data on synonyms which is given and makes sure he understands them.) One must also clear any other information given about the word, such as notes on its usage, synonyms, etc. so as to have a full understanding of the word. M9
Then he rereads that sentence. The word clearer then asks the student to read once again the sentence M9
If it is not obvious to the student there was a non-optimum reaction and he just continues reading, the Word Clearer stops him and asks him if there is some word or symbol there that he didn’t understand. The word clearer must now ensure that the student understands the sentence and/or paragraph that contained the misunderstood. If the student does not originate this the word clearer must ask him to tell him what the sentence or paragraph means. M9
If he has difficulty finding the misunderstood word or symbol the Word Clearer helps him find it. he may have difficulty finding [his misunderstood word] and the word clearer will have to help him find it. M9
The Word Clearer helps him by getting him to look earlier and earlier in the text from the point where he reacted until the misunderstood word is found. The word clearer helps the student by getting him to look earlier and earlier in the text from the point where he reacted until the misunderstood word is found. M9
The Word Clearer can also choose words from the text the student has already read and check with him to see if he knows the definitions. The word clearer can also spot-check the student. Spot-checking means choosing words from the text the student has already read and checking with him to see if he knows the definitions of those words. M9
If the student is uncertain about any words or gives a wrong definition, then that word is taken up and cleared in the dictionary.

 
If the student is uncertain about any word or gives a wrong definition, then that word is taken up and cleared in the dictionary. M9
He first clears the definition that fits. Therefore he would rapidly go over the definitions to find the one that fits … M9
But maybe he doesn’t understand a word in the definition.

He then clears that word.

Once the misunderstood word in the definition is cleared, he goes back to the word he was clearing before. He rereads the definition he was on and finishes clearing the word.

If one encounters a misunderstood word or symbol in the definition of a word being cleared, one must clear it right away using this same procedure and then return to the definition one was clearing. M9
Then he rereads the sentence and continues. The word clearer then asks the student to read once again the sentence M9
And so it goes.    
Any discomfort, nonoptimum conduct, mishandling, unsmoothness, tension, robotness is checked into by the Word Clearer.

Is it the word he just said, or a word or symbol before it?

A non-optimum reaction by the student to what he is reading is the clue to the word clearer that the student has encountered a misunderstood word. … It will be found just before or sometimes at the point the non-optimum reaction occurred. M9
When a section of the text has been word cleared in this way and the student understands it,

. . . they switch around and the student who just completed being word cleared becomes the Word Clearer.

The student goes through the same section of text and then goes on to the next fresh passage.

They take it in turns like this, word clearing it section by section until they have both finished the whole text.

They take the materials being word cleared one paragraph or section at a time and M9 each other on it. This is done by a student first M9ing his twin on one section, and then getting M9ed on what he just word cleared his twin on, plus the next section. It then turns around again. The twin gets M9ed on what he just word cleared the other student on, and on the next section. …

The whole text would be covered in this way.

M9
During the Word Clearing session, the Word Clearer should keep a record (worksheet) of the words looked up and cleared and any other important information concerning the Word Clearing. The word clearer keeps worksheets during the word clearing session and writes down which words have been looked up and cleared and any other important information concerning the word clearing. M9
Method 7 Word Clearing    
Whenever one is working with children or foreign language persons or semiliterates, a method of Word Clearing called METHOD 7 or READING ALOUD is used. WORD CLEARING METHOD 7, whenever one is working with children or foreign-language persons or semi-literates Method 7 Reading Aloud is used. The procedure is have him read aloud. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him. (HCOB 21 Jun 72 III) Abbr. M7. M7
In this method the person is made to read aloud to find out what he is doing. In this method the person is made to read aloud to find out what he is doing. M7
It is a very simple method. It is a very simple method. It is done without a meter. M7
It is used on such persons before other Word Clearing methods in order to get the person untangled. It is used on such persons before other methods in order to get the person untangled. M7
If a person does not seem to be progressing by studying silently, one has him read aloud. If a person does not seem to be progressing by studying silently, one has him read aloud. M7
Another copy of the same text must also be followed by the Word Clearer as the person reads. Another copy of the same text must also be followed by the Word Clearer as the person reads. M7
Startling things can be observed. Startling things can be observed. M7
The person may omit the word "is" whenever it occurs. The person doesn’t read it. He may have some strange meaning for it like "Israel" (actual occurrence). The person may omit the word "is" whenever it occurs. The person doesn’t read it. He may have some strange meaning for it like "Israel" (actual occurrence). M7
He may omit "didn’t" each time it occurs and the reason may trace to not knowing what the apostrophe is (actual occurrence). He may omit "didn’t" each time it occurs and the reason traced to not knowing what the apostrophe is (actual occurrence). M7
He may call one word quite another word such as "stop" for "happen" or "green" for "mean." He may call one word quite another word such as "stop" for "happen" or "green" for "mean". M7
He may hesitate over certain words. He may hesitate over certain words. M7
The procedure is: The procedure is M7
1. Have him read aloud. 1. Have him read aloud. M7
2. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. 2. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. M7
3. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him. 3. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him. M7
4. Have him go on reading, noting the next omission, word change or hesitation or frown. 4. Have him go on reading, noting the next omission, word change or hesitation or frown. M7
5. Repeat steps 2 to 4. 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4. M7
By doing this a person can be brought up to literacy. By doing this a person can be brought up to literacy. M7
His next actions would be learning how to use a dictionary and look up words. His next actions would be learning how to use a dictionary and look up words. M7
Then a simple grammar text. Then a simple grammar. M7
A very backward student can be boosted up to literacy by this method. A very backward student can be boosted up to literacy by this method. M7
Chapter seven: Coaching and checkouts "THEORY CHECK-OUT DATA," HCO Policy Letter of 4 October 1964 ("TCCD")

"SCIENTOLOGY TRAINING TWIN CHECKOUTS," HCO Policy Letter of 26 August 1965
("STTC")

"HOW TO DO THEORY CHECKOUTS AND EXAMINATIONS," HCO Policy Letter of 4
March 1971 ("TCE")

 
Coaching    
Coaching is a vital part of study technology.    
It is used frequently in doing drills on specific actions. In coaching drills, two students work together, one acting as a trainer to help the other achieve the purpose of the drill. Once the first student has become competent on the action, he becomes the coach to help the other student through.    
Coaching can also be used in theory, when a student is having a hard time studying something.    
Coaching theory means getting a student to define all the words, give all the rules, demonstrate things in his materials with his hands or bits of things, and also may include doing clay demos. Coaching Theory means getting a student to define all the words, give all the rules, demonstrate things in the bulletin with his hands or bits of things, and also may include doing Clay Table Definitions of Scientology terms. STTC
Any student who is having any trouble or is slow or glib should team up with another student of comparable difficulties with whom he can do theory coaching. The usual Supervisor action would be to have any student who is having any trouble or is slow or glib team up with another student of comparable difficulties and have them turn about with each other with Theory Coaching, similar to Practical Coaching in drills. STTC
Checkouts    
A checkout is the action of verifying a student’s knowledge of what he has studied. A checkout is not a test of whether or not the student can memorize what he has read.    
It will never do a student any good at all to know some facts. The student is expected only to use facts. It will never do a student any good at all to know some facts. The student is expected only to use facts. STTC
Giving a checkout on the material a student has studied by seeing if it can be quoted or paraphrased proves exactly nothing. This will not guarantee that the student knows the data or can use or apply it nor even guarantees that the student is there. Neither the "bright" student nor the "dull" student (both suffering from the same malady) will benefit from such an examination. Giving a text assignment check by seeing if it can be quoted or paraphrased proves exactly nothing. This will not guarantee that the student knows the data or can use or apply it nor even guarantees that the student is there. Neither the "bright" student nor the "dull" student (both suffering from the same malady) will benefit from such an examination. STTC
So examining by seeing if somebody "knows" the text and can quote or paraphrase it is completely false and must not be done. So examining by seeing if somebody "knows" the text and can quote or paraphrase it is completely false and must not be done. STTC
Correct examination is done only by making the person being tested answer: Correct examination is done only by making the person being tested answer STTC
a. The meanings of the words (redefining the words used in his own words and demonstrating their use in his own made-up sentences), and (a) The meanings of the words (redefining the words used in his own words and demonstrating their use in his own made up sentences), and STTC
b. Demonstrating how the data is used. (b) Demonstrating how the data is used. STTC
"What is the first paragraph?" is about as dull as one can get. "What are the rules given about _____?" is a question one should never bother to ask. Neither of these tell the examiner whether he has the bright nonapplier u the dull student before him. Such questions just beg for the student’s criticism and course blows. "What is the first paragraph?" is about as dull as one can get. "What are the rules given about . . . . .?" a question I would never bother to ask. Neither of these tell the twin whether he has the bright non-applier or the dull student before him. Such questions just beg for natter and course blows. STTC
Example of How to Do a Checkout    
I would go over the first paragraph of any material I was examining a student on and pick out a few uncommon words. I’d ask the student to define each and demonstrate its use in a made-up sentence and flunk the first "well . . . er . . . let me see . . . and that would be the end of that checkout. I would go over the first paragraph of any material I was examining a student on and pick out some uncommon words. I’d ask the student to define each and demonstrate its use in a made up sentence and flunk the first "Well . . . er . . . let me see. . . ." and that would be the end of that checkout. I wouldn’t pick out only Scientologese. I’d pick out words that weren’t too ordinary such as "benefit" "permissive" "calculated" as well as "engram". STTC
Above all, I myself would be sure I knew what the words meant before I started to examine. Above all, I myself would be sure I knew what the words meant before I started to examine. STTC
When the student had the words, I’d demand the music. What tune do these words play? … when the student had the words, I’d demand the music. What tune do these words play? STTC
I’d say, "All right, what use is this text assignment to you?" Questions like, "Now this rule here about not letting people eat candy while dieting, how come there’d be such a rule?" If the student couldn’t imagine why, I’d send him back to the words just ahead of that rule to find the one he hadn’t grasped. I’d say "All right, what use is this text assignment to you?" Questions like, "Now this rule here about not letting pcs eat candy while being audited, how come there’d be such a rule?" And if the student couldn’t imagine why, I’d go back to the words just ahead of that rule and find the one he hadn’t grasped. STTC
But if the student weren’t up to the point of study where knowing why he used that rule was part of his materials, I wouldn’t ask. It is very important that a student not be examined above his or her level. But if the student wasn’t up to the point of study where knowing why he used the ARC triangle was not part of his materials, I wouldn’t ask. For all the data about not examining above level applies very severely to Theory Checkout as well as to Practical and general Instruction. STTC
How to Do Theory Checkouts HOW TO DO THEORY CHECKOUTS AND EXAMINATIONS TCE
Before any person gives another a checkout, he must himself have read or listened to the material. This will make it possible to consult the understanding and the ability to apply the material of the per son being checked out.    
The important points of a text are: The important points of a Bulletin, Tape or Policy Letter are: TCE
1. The specific rules, axioms, or maxims; 1. The specific rules, axioms, maxims or stable data; TCE
2. The doingness details, exactly how it is done; 2. The doingness details, exactly how is it done; and TCE
and    
3. The theory of why it is done. 3. The theory of why it is done. TCE
All else (except of course, that the student knows what the words mean) is unnecessary. All you have to demand is the above. All else is unnecessary. All you have to demand is the above. TCE
1. The rules, laws, theories, axioms and maxims must be known and the student must be able to show their meaning is also known to him or her.

 
(1) The rules, axioms, maxims or stable data must be known and the student must be able to show their meaning is also known to him or her. TCE
2. The doingness must be exactly known as to sequence and actions but not verbatim (in the same words as the text). (2) The doingness must be exactly known as to sequence and actions but not verbatim (in the same words as the text). TCE
3. The theory must be known as a line of reasoning, reasons why or related data and with accuracy, but not verbatim. (3) The theory must be known as a line of reasoning, reasons why or related data and with accuracy, but not verbatim. TCE
The date of the book, lecture, or manual is relatively unimportant, and other details of like nature should never be asked for. The date of the lecture or bulletin or letter is relatively unimportant and other details of like nature should never be asked for. TCE
If a student is ever going to apply the data, then above (1) must be down cold, (2) must be able to be experienced and (3) must be appreciated. If a student or Staff Member is ever going to apply the data, then above (1) must be down cold, (2) must be able to be experienced and (3) must be appreciated. TCE
Asking for anything else is to rebuff interest and give a feeling of failure to the person being examined. Asking for anything else is to rebuff interest and give a feeling of failure to the person being examined. TCE
An examiner or study partner should examine with exactness on (1), alertness on (2), and seeing if the student understands (3). An examiner or study partner should not go beyond these points, asking for what person was mentioned, who did the test, what is the copyright date, what are the first words, etc. An examiner or twin should examine with exactness on (1), alertness on (2) and seeing if the student understands (3). An examiner or twin should not go beyond these points, asking for what person was mentioned, who did the test, what is the copyright date, what are the first words, etc. TCE
Irrelevant examination questions only slow the student. Irrelevant examination questions only slow the student and extend the course. TCE
It might also be noted that checkouts on course materials must also ask for demonstrations. Use paper clips, rubber bands, etc. The examiner or study partner should ask questions that require an ability to apply. Give the student a situation and have him tell you how he would handle it. It might also be noted that checkouts on bulletins must also ask for demonstrations. Use paper clips, rubber bands, etc. The examiner or twin should ask questions that require an ability to apply. Give the student a situation and have him tell you how he would handle it. TCE
Be as tough as you please, but only on (1), (2) and (3) above. Be as tough as you please, but only on (1), (2) and (3) above. TCE
Chapter eight: Learning how to learn "Training: Duplication," lecture of 24 January 1962 ("TR-D")

"FALSE DATA STRIPPING," HCO Bulletin of 7 August 1979 ("FDS")

"Studying: Data assimilation," lecture of 9 July 1964 ("SDA")

 
The Learning Drill    
As has been covered earlier in this book, learning is not always the same as study. Some people can do a whole course and get good marks and not learn anything. A person might pass every exam, yet not have learned the data so that it can be applied.    
The following drill is used to improve the ability to study and increase the learning rate.    
NAME: The Learning Drill.    
POSITION: Student and coach sit facing each other across a table.    
PURPOSE: To develop judgment by understanding and duplication. The conclusion is that you can learn to have judgment, and the way you learn to have judgment is just those two steps: duplication of
data, and, pursuant to that, understanding. 
TR-D
TRAINING STRESS:    
1. The first step is duplication.    
The coach takes a sentence or phrase from Alice in Wonderland. The line used is unimportant. The coach reads it to the student. Coach merely tries to get student to repeat a line of sounds. You don’t need to call them words. It is not rote memory. It is duplication. The coach repeats the line each time the student flubs until the student has duplicated it exactly. Take any datum in Scientology, say it to him and have him repeat it.
This is the simplest of all these; just say it and have him repeat it, you
see, and say it and have him repeat it, …
TR-D
2. The second step is understanding.    
After the student has correctly duplicated what the coach read, the coach asks, "Give me an example of that." Student gives example or examples until both are satisfied. … and then say it and have him tell you what it is all about, you
know, by giving you an example of it. You say it, he gives you an example of
it.
TR-D
Coach then asks, "How do you feel about that?" and if okay, they continue to the next line. If student has any uncertainties with examples, the coach goes back to step 1 and starts the drill from beginning, using the same line.    
If the student still has trouble with examples, coach would ask, "Are there any misunderstoods on this line?" and any found are cleared up. A dictionary should be used.    
REMEDY: If the student continues to have trouble with examples, the coach should say, "Give me an example of how the datum isn’t that way," and student gives examples until both are satisfied; then, "Give me examples of how it is," until both are satisfied. Always end off with how it is.    
Results    
The student should feel good about the datum after duplication and understanding, and should start having realizations as he is further drilled.    
Eventually, using the two basic steps, the student will learn judgment.    
The drill should be coached on a gradient.    
It should be ended on a good success. The student should look good.    
The end result on each student is the ability to rapidly and accurately learn data.    
Data and Power of Choice    
There is another method of education which is quite fabulous. It can help a student to regain power of choice over data.    
Here’s an example.    
Part One    
Check before going on if the student can remember the first set of numbers you gave him.    
This would be continued until the student could easily recall and repeat a nonsignificant datum.    
Part Two    
This step is done using examples of nonsignificant data which are totally incorrect. When the student has regained his power of choice, go on to the third step, that of teaching the actual datum you want to teach him.    
Part Three    
This particular method of instruction takes a nonsignificant datum and teaches somebody that the repetition of the datum does not bring about chaos, does not hurt him any, that he can do it.    
Then you teach him he could remember it.    
You would do this with a nonsignificant datum: one, two, three; a hundred, thirty-two, sixteen. Just numbers. You get a repetition of this, and then he can remember it.    
Now, you do something else with him. He’s so used to being taught by life with duress, and not with power of choice, that you take a totally incorrect datum. There would be no argument about the incorrectness of the datum. And you let him throw it out. You give him another datum, incorrect, and let him throw it out. If he has any difficulty with the nonsignificant items, you would keep repeating these until he could do it smoothly.    
Now you’ve shown him that he can remember something or reject it, and that is the definition of power of choice.    
Then you give him a datum which is the datum you wish to teach him. And you give him power of choice over that datum. But the pitch is to give it a little bit exaggerated in force. "The coach should always agree with the student." It’s not true.    
Let him quarrel with it. Let him chew it around. Let him add it up and look over his own experience.    
Make him give you an objective example. That is a vital part of this particular operation — a vital part of it.    
Have him set up a dummy situation. If you’re teaching him that it is wrong to run off the road with a car, you have him show you where the road is on the table and move the saltshaker off the road.    
You give him an objective example. He has to then translate your statement into action. He must do this, and he must continue to do this until he can do it, so that it ceases to be a bunch of words.    
False Data FALSE DATA STRIPPING FDS
When a person is not functioning well on his job or in life, at the bottom of his difficulties will often be found unknown basic definitions and laws or false definitions, false data and false laws, resulting in the inability to think with the words and rules of that activity and an inability to perform the simplest required functions. The person will remain unfamiliar with the fundamentals of his activity, at times appearing idiotic, because of these not-defined and falsely defined words. When a person is not functioning well on his post, on his job or in life, at the bottom of his difficulties will often be found unknown basic definitions and laws or false definitions, false data and false laws, resulting in an inability to think with the words and rules of that activity and an inability to perform the simplest required functions The person will remain unfamiliar with the fundamentals of his activity, at times appearing idiotic, because of these not-defined and falsely defined words. FDS
A politician is told by an adviser, "It doesn’t matter how much money the government spends. It is good for the society." The politician uses this "rule" and, the next thing you know, inflation is driving everybody to starvation and the government to bankruptcy. The politician, knowing he was told this on the very best authority, does not spot it as false data, but continues to use it right up to the point where the angry mobs stand him in front of a firing squad’ and shoot him down. And the pity of it is that the politician never once suspected that there was anything false about the data, even though he couldn’t work with it. A politician is told by an advisor, "It doesn’t matter how much money the government spends. It is good for the society." The politician uses this "rule" and the next thing you know, inflation is driving everybody to starvation and the government to bankruptcy. The politician, knowing he was told this on the very best authority, does not spot it as false data, but continues to use it right up to the point where the angry mobs stand him up in front of a firing squad and shoot him down. And the pity of it is that the politician never once suspected that there was anything false about the data, even though he couldn’t work with it. FDS
There is no field in all the society where false data is not rampant. "Experts," "advisers," "friends," "families," seldom go and look at the basic texts on subjects, even when these are known to exist, but indulge in all manner of interpretations and even outright lies to seem wise or expert. The cost, in terms of lost production and damaged equipment, is enormous. You will see it in all sectors of society. People cannot think with the fundamentals of their work. They goof. They ruin things. They have to redo what they have already done. There is no field in all the society where false data is not rampant. "Experts," "Advisors," "Friends," "Families" seldom go and look at the basic texts on subjects, even when these are known to exist, but indulge in all manner of interpretations and even outright lies to seem wise or expert. The cost, in terms of lost production and damaged equipment is enormous. You will see it in all sectors of society. People cannot think with the fundamentals of their work. They goof. They ruin things. They have to redo what they have already done. FDS
False data on a subject can come from any number of sources. In the process of day-to-day living, people encounter and often accept without inspection all sorts of ideas which may seem to make sense but don’t. Advertising, newspapers, TV and other media are packed with such material. Even mothers have a hand in it, such as "children should be seen and not heard." False data on a subject can come from any number of sources. In the process of day-to-day living people encounter and often accept without inspection all sorts of ideas which may seem to make sense but don’t. Advertising, newspapers, TV and other media are packed with such material. The most profound false data can come out of texts such as Stanislavsky (a Russian actor and director); and even mothers have a hand in it, such as "children should be seen and not heard." FDS
Where a subject, such as art, contains innumerable authorities and voluminous opinions you may find that any and all textbooks under that heading reek with false data. The validity of texts is an important factor in study. Where a subject, such as art, contains innumerable authorities and voluminous opinions you may find that any and all textbooks under that heading reek with false data. Those who have studied study tech will recall that the validity of texts is an important factor in study. FDS
Therefore it is important that any Supervisor or teacher seeking to strip off false data must utilize basic workable texts. These are most often found to have been written by the original discoverer of the subject and when in doubt, avoid texts which are interpretations of somebody else’s work. In short, choose only textual material which is closest to the basic facts of the subject and avoid those which embroider upon them. Therefore it is important that any supervisor or teacher seeking to use False Data Stripping must utilize basic workable texts. These are most often found to have been written by the original discoverer of the subject and when in doubt avoid texts which are interpretations of somebody else’s work. In short, choose only textual material which is closest to the basic facts of the subject and avoid those which embroider upon them. FDS
If one is to use at all effectively what one is learning, he must first sort out the true facts regarding it from the conflicting bits and pieces of information or opinion he has acquired. This eliminates the false data and lets him get on with it. If he is to use it at all effectively he must first sort out the true facts regarding it from the conflicting bits and pieces of information or opinion he has acquired. This eliminates the false data and lets him get on with it. FDS
As a person goes through life, he receives data (facts, information) in many ways — from friends, family, school, television, etc.    
Not all data is as important as all other data. Some data is more useful than other data and some data is of no value at all.    
When one looks at a "sea" of facts, every drop in the sea might look like every other drop. However, since some of the drops of water might be of vast importance, one would need to look for the key data — those drops of water in the middle of the ocean that are the key drops of water.    
People have sometimes listened to so many useless opinions in life that they never learn the key data. They then don’t have the key data they need to resolve their problems.    
Life has certain laws and these are the most senior data of all. The data you get from this book is very basic data which provides you with tools with which you can handle life.    
Having these tools in your hands can help you become more causative over life. If you learn to think with these tools and apply them, you will have the senior data which can resolve problems you’re faced with. Life will all of a sudden become more livable.    
[Missing pages]    
The difference between the "bright" student and the "dull" one, the student who is very, very fast and the one who is very, very slow, is really only the difference between the careful student and the careless student. Actually, I don’t think there are bright students and dull students. I don’t think this at all. I don’t think so, because I’ve never seen any real coordination between knowledge of the subject and the brightness and dullness of a student. But there is a careful student and a careless student. SDA
The careful student applies the technology of study. He studies with an intention to learn something. He handles any of the barriers to study which appear as he is working with his materials.    
If he is reading down a paragraph and suddenly realizes that he doesn’t have a clue what he is reading about, he goes back and finds out where he got tangled up. He’s reading down this paragraph and all of a sudden he wakes up to the fact he hasn’t the foggiest clue what the devil he’s talking about — what he’s reading about so he goes back and finds out where he got tangled up. SDA
Just before that there is a word he didn’t understand. If he is a careful student, he doesn’t continue until he finds out what that word is and what it means.    
That is a careful student, and his brightness on the subject is dependent upon the degree he applies this technology. It isn’t dependent on any native talent or anything else. It is his command of the subject of study that makes the difference. Now, there’s a careful student. And his brightness on the subject is dependent upon the degree he does this. It isn’t dependent on any native talent or anything else. It isn’t even dependent on his buttons. SDA
[L. Ron Hubbard "bios"]    


  • fjor

    I’m not a Scientologist but I did attend the Delphi School in my 12th year of High School & they taught me everything I should’ve learned in my 1st 11 years of regular school. Subsequently, I did try my hand at being a Scientologist for awhile but my priorities were different than theirs. I will always be grateful to those people for teaching me their Study Tech – It really does work if you use it & if you use it exactly as written. – The thing about new things are that you might be surprised if you actually try them. How many Christians do you know that actually get on their knees to pray or do it in private like Paul says. Maybe if we all did it exactly like it says in the Bible our prayers would be more often answered to our satisfaction.